As OrganicMarble noted in the comments, Google Earth Pro has a nice map of Mars with all the rovers and landers included. And you can also measure distance. For example, here's the distance between Jezero Crater (left), and where Curiosity is in Gale Crater (right):
As you can see, your estimate was pretty close. Google Earth Pro shows 3717 km, and your ...
Presuming that we could build on what we learned from Ingenuity, and we built, launched, and landed a copter platform that was designed to autonomously map the surface of Mars, what challenges would it be worth undertaking?
You are asking for far too much, and because you are asking for far too much, you are missing the point of Ingenuity, and its follow-on ...
Here's the labelled version you found of the USGS map large enough to read the text
For completion's sake, here's a mirror, limited by the 2MB upload size of SE, so it's only barely readable. The link above has a much higher resolution
Here's also the key only in somewhat higher resolution, which is likely reusable between all versions of the map.
Do the current (or soon to be obtained) surface maps of those bodies have a spatial resolution that is high enough to enable the development of lander & robotic missions to those destinations?
Not at all. We don't even have high enough remote resolution to land on our Moon or on Mars.
Terrain relative navigation can get a vehicle most of the way there, ...
According to the Universe Today website, the US Geological Service (USGS) has produced a geological map of the Moon, that is available online.
This is also an animation of the globe of the Moon.
The map in the picture included in your question can be downloaded from the USGS website and it is possible to zoom in on the map and legend to see the detail.
No. The problem is bandwidth. The highest resolution camera in Mars orbit right now is the HiRISE camera. It can image the surface of the planet with a resolution of about 25 cm resolution. It has only, in 15 years, been able to capture around 4% of the planet. The reason why they haven't been able to send back more data is because of bandwidth limitations. ...
As has been stated in other answers, a whole planet aerial survey would be excessive, but detailed surveys of specific regions of interest would be where aerial surveys would be most beneficial.
I can envisage a phased usage of flying vehicles on Mars.
To assist with initial exploration of Mars by helping rovers find
targets and helping find a better way ...
I tried to do the same using python:
import numpy as np
a = 1737400
x_g = -411141.107140
y_g = -411325.894877
x = x_g/np.sqrt( 1 + np.square(x_g/a) + np.square(y_g/a) )
y = y_g/np.sqrt( 1 + np.square(x_g/a) + np.square(y_g/a) )
z = a/np.sqrt( 1 + np.square(x_g/a) + np.square(y_g/a) )
print('(x, y, z) = ', (x, y, z))
x_s = 2*a*y/(a + z)
y_s = 2*a*x/(...
How many bits would be needed to map the full surface of Mars?
The surface is 149 million square km, that is 149E12 square meter. If we want to store pixels of one square meter, three bytes for color, we need 447E12 bytes of storage. A terabyte disk stores 1.099E12 bytes. So we need 407 disks with 1 terabyte each for storage. Using 16 terabytes disks reduces ...