Yes and no.
The no part first: Mars 2020 had sensors and effectors attached to the non-important parts of your diagram, many of which had various degrees of smarts.
Star trackers are very sophisticated cameras. The have their own computers that control mode (e.g., lost in space versus locked) and that perform pattern matching on an self-contained star map. ...
As far as I can tell, the 50 figure is somewhat erroneous/only approximate which is (understandably) caused by the confusing way the proposed landing site list changed during the selection process.
I've attempted to collate the information from the Landing Site Workshops overview which has all the presentations and announcements from the entire process. In ...
There was a fluid loop that transferred heat from the RTG to cruise stage components, as shown in these diagrams.
Source: Thermal Control of MSL Rover 'Curiousity" Using an Active Fluid Loop
The separation of the thermal control system is described in this paper thusly:
The first major thermal event triggered by the EDL sequence was venting of the ...
There were some instruments attached to the heatshield that took measurements of the atmosphere during the entry, descent, and landing phase. This suite was referred to as MEDLI (MSL EDL Instruments). This was used for gathering data about how the heatshields performed, and what the atmosphere around them was like, during EDL. While instruments measuring how ...
According to my extensive research on the topic, Mars 2020 is the name of the mission; Mars 2020 is to MSL as Perseverance is to Curiosity, but the Mars 2020 mission also includes the Ingenuity drone, which had no parallel in MSL. I don't see any references to a "science laboratory" on the Mars 2020 page.
See lower centre of pic, cylindrical thing is umbilical cutter, next to that is grey blocky thing being the point of attachment of support cable with cutter in block, next to that is a bunch of severed cables and pipes/tubes:
original, click for larger
NASA explains some of the answer. Curiousity did use a parachute in the early phases of its descent, and Mars 2020 will use a skycrane for touchdown. The difference is "Range Trigger" -- Mars 2020 may vary the time (and therefore velocity) at which it triggers its parachute to open so as to land closer to its objective. Range Trigger is also discussed ...
The Martian atmosphere is rather thin, and opacity is rather low. The sensitivity (ISO) needs to be cranked up to see the Martian sky at all. This alone will create some amount of graininess. Even with that, from the linked Science article, "The captured clouds are so thin as to be invisible without painstaking computer enhancement, Kloos said in his ...
Have a look at this page, with links to MSL Landing site Workshops.
It has the 33 landing sites list of the first workshop.
There's also a link to the presentations of the second workshop.
The "Overview of Process and Goals" presentation by John Grant contains also the Workshop agenda, where you find the 51 sites list.
You might also want to check this ...
The name of the entire mission is MSL, the Curiosity rover is part of that mission, and the only part operational today.
Example of how NASA uses the two names:
Mars Science Laboratory arrived at Mars through technological innovations that tested a completely new landing method. The spacecraft descended on a parachute, then during the final seconds ...
Short answer: yes.
Long answer is here (Thermal Response of the Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft during Entry, Descent and Landing - Keith S. Novak):
Flyaway Segment: at E+431 sec (see Figure 6)
After the Bridle was
cut, control of the DS was transferred to the DMCA. The DS traveled
straight up above the Rover, before turning 45 degrees and thrusting
This article says 1,930°C (2,200K) for Curiosity, which seem in line with peak Orion and Apollo values from this answer, 2,200°C (2,470K) and 5,000°F (3,000K).
As such, the surface material does not reach solar temperatures.
However, the gas and plasma immediately next to it can easily reach 10x solar temperature, and what is "surface" of the Sun ...
These large changes in parachute loading can couple with the “wrist mode” of the (MSL) entry body where, as the two bodies descend, the entry body rotates about its center of mass.
At 4 km, Schiaparelli was planned to be subsonic, at ~300 km/h:
Note that speed decreases rapidly from 1700 km/h at 11 km altitude to 320 km/h at 7 km ...
From the DESCANSO MSL Article, cruise communications were done with a medium-gain antenna (MGA) and a low-gain antenna (PLGA).
The spacecraft was spin stabilized:
the interplanetary trajectory attitude control plan for MSL has the cruise stage spinning at 2 revolutions per minute (rpm) until shortly before entry into the Martian atmosphere. The cruise ...
After dozens of test, I found the way.
Payload to be sent over POST query: