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5

The Indian Mangal mission is a big achievement. Getting to Mars is hard, even for a space agency with the budget of NASA. The scientists and engineers at ISRO deserve all the respect for what they have done. The use of repeated orbit raising manoeuvres is real, but it is not done for budget-saving reasons, but for fuel efficiency, which allows for greater ...


1

Partial answer: Rover technology has evolved a lot since the 1960's and 70's! How did Lunokhod 1 become "lost" in 1971; in what ways did astronomers "look for it" after that? What was it actually like driving the Lunokhod lunar rovers live from the ground? What were some of the biggest challenges? How (the heck) did Lunokhod 2 drive, ...


3

I believe I might have found an answer to this question in this interesting paper, which reviews the origin of duration and distance requirements for planetary mobility systems. It appears the 90 sol value could tie its origin to the early studies for the Mars Exploration Rovers - Spirit and Opportunity. According to the paper, at the time of MER's early ...


1

Bad idea. Ketosis results in muscle atrophy (wasting). Glucose is the primary fuel of the heart and brain. No blood glucose = death. Ketones are not an adequate substitute for glucose. Normally, the body breaks down dietary carbohydrates to provide glucose. Extra glucose is stored as fat, but fat cannot be turned back into glucose. In severe carbohydrate ...


3

Yes, if the cavern and the mineshaft above it could be filled with perfluorobutane, the cavern could be habitable because that inert greenhouse gas is 5.4 times as dense as CO2 ! To add some sense of reality I've situated the shaft in Nier crater (43.1⁰ N, 106.0⁰ E) because, according to the NASA's Treasure Map for Water Ice on Mars, it has subsurface ice ...


2

There are no direct measurements of this, but the caps are probably only a few million years old. All we have are estimated cratering ages, which indicate the surfaces of the polar caps are very young, and model estimates, which place special emphasis on a transition in the axis tilt behavior about 5 Myr ago. This is discussed in Byrne 2009 The Polar ...


3

You would be relatively protected on Mars, due primarily to the atmosphere. Directly overhead, you have ~16 g/cm^2 of CO2 atmosphere on average, far more along lines of sight closer to the horizon, and the entire planet blocking radiation from below, in all reducing radiation exposure by several orders of magnitude. There's also a significant day/night ...


16

Looks like it's not possible: To get Earth-normal pressure we need 55km https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/14871/at-what-depth-on-mars-would-the-atmosphere-have-equal-pressure-of-that-on-earth But the deepest we can go looks like 7km What's the deepest a trench could theoretically be dug on Mars? And even if lava isn't a problem the rocks ...


2

The simple answer is: it won't kill immediately but depending on the length of the exposure before reaching a shielded area, it would definitely cause radiation sickness which would result in a whole bunch of symptoms similar to the symptoms recorded after the exposure to radioactive fallout during the Chernobyl reactor accident (like cancer, neural damage ...


21

What is unique about the ITS that would make the travel time so much shorter? Is the propulsion method described in existence today? The current manifestation of the ITS is Starship, and the performance estimates of such a vehicle have shrunk considerably since the public reveal of the ITS (it is very much so a different vehicle though so not an apples to ...


11

Probably the key term here is pork chop plot. The linked page includes one from 2005 for Mars where the lowest C3 departure was 15.5 and 400 or so days, but doubling that to 30 got a transfer in 125 days, by leaving Earth faster and burning off more energy on arrival. For science payloads it generally makes sense to use the minimum fuel load and pack as much ...


-1

Yeah you could do that. It would take a fleet of autonomous nuclear thermal spaceplanes. Basically the spaceplanes dip into the atmosphere using externally heated turbines with ambient air as propellent while it sucks up and compresses ambient atmosphere. Use a portion of the atmosphere you just collected to leave the gravity well and trasport to a gigantic ...


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