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Generally what happens is that radio signals are sent from the Martian surface to a spacecraft orbiting Mars, which then sends the data to Earth. As an example, the current NASA missions on the Martian surface (Perseverance, Curiosity, and InSight) send data via radio signals to the Mars Relay Network, which consists of various NASA and ESA Martian orbiters. ...


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Will these sample tubes stay on the rover itself? No. There is no facility for storing all 43 sample tubes on Perseverance. Or will they be put on the floor of Mars? Yes. The sample tubes will be "cached" on the surface of Mars, either individually or in small groups. 3 have already been cached. how a future rover could find them? It doesn't ...


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Let me approach your statement from the comments: with regards for surface mining, it wouldn't be impossible to design mining drones that work on the surface. No. Currently, any continued operation would require continuous use of large amounts of consumables - say, evaporating water - to sustain cooling of such a drone. Sustained operation is outright ...


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The biggest problem is Mars has no magnetosphere because its core has gotten too cold. It’s basically pointless since you’ll die of cancer within a few years as has just been recently pointed out that Mars missions should be less than 4 years in length. There is no feasible way to solve the magnetosphere problem. Given what others have already pointed out ...


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Can VLF be used to create a Mars barrier? The short answer is no because Mars does not have an intrinsic magnetic field, thus no uniform dipole magnetic field to generate a magnetosphere. I wrote an answer about Jupiter that may be of interest as well at https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/142922/59023. In the Earth's magnetosphere, the VLF frequency range ...


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There is a detailed review of space weather effects on humans in space by Townsend [2021]. They highlight several solar energetic particle (SEP) events that would have exceeded 30 day short-term organ damage limits from recent observations, all of which are likely to be weaker than the Carrington event. They also provide the dose limits for blood forming ...


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NASA has a webpage with an interactive map of the rover and helicopter. As of today, the helicopter is slightly farther (straight-line distance) from the landing site than the rover. the rover and helicopter are about 400 m apart. Of course, the answers will change as the mission progresses.


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Partial answer. (I don't have numerical data.) This NASA article describes "shining clouds" that occur after sunset. It includes pictures: The clouds reflect sunlight, increasing surface illumination after sunset. The same article states that the phenomenon is seasonal. Thus, one would expect significant variation in the brightness of Mars ...


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The deployment system for Ingenuity was designed and manufactured by Lockheed-Martin. The steps are described on this webpage: Perseverance lands and searches for an acceptable airfield. The debris shield cover is released and dropped. The rover drives to the center of the airfield. The deployment system is unlocked. The helicopter is rotated to vertical. ...


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According to this NASA article, cirrus-like clouds occur naturally on Mars: Wispy, early-season clouds resembling Earth's ice-crystal cirrus clouds move across the Martian sky in some new image sequences from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. [...] "It is likely that the clouds are composed of crystals of water ice that condense out onto dust grains where ...


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Others have given good technical answers, but I would like to add an interesting commercial point: You don't need to bring the gold back to Earth. See the figure below, but something between half and a third of the gold demand is not for actual use on Earth, but rather as a financial asset. Demand for gold worldwide from 1st quarter of 2016 to 1st quarter ...


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Quite apart from the question whether there is gold in mineable quantities and deposits on Mars, you have to ask yourself what term are you thinking of. Short term, as others have stated, it's simply not economical. Mid term, as the Martian population grows and starts to develop an industrial base, mining operations for other things and factories start to ...


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The OP claims (I can't check the calculation) that if the cost of per kg of payload to Mars is US\$3225, then it is only 7.5% more than the price of gold on Earth (at least, how I understand his reasoning). Then he concluded that, if Mr Musk can divide SpaceX cost per kg of payload by a factor 2, the delta of cost vs price of gold is also divided by 2 (3.25%)...


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