Looking at old manifest documents, it seems pretty clear that Atlantis (OV-104) was outfitted with all the hardware for Shuttle-Mir missions and they used her exclusively for that until they couldn't any more.
The rules for orbiter mission scheduling were really byzantine but one major consideration was that every X flights and/or time interval, the ...
Most such spacecraft, including Skylab and the ISS, have their attitude maintained by reaction wheels. These wheel essentially convert the rotational energy of the entire spacecraft into a smaller reaction wheel. If the attitude failed while these wheels were spun up, then they would eventually slow down (In a timeframe of minutes). As the wheels slowed down,...
I believe that's the Sofora girder which was made up of 20 segments totalling 14 metres in length. There was an RCS thruster at the top end which made it easier to orient the station and used less propellant. It was assembled by Anatoli Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev during four EVAs in July 1991 and the thruster pack installed by Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli ...
Columbia did not.
Despite being in service during the Shuttle-Mir and International Space Station programs, Columbia did not fly any missions that visited a space station. The other three active orbiters at the time had visited both Mir and the ISS at least once. Columbia was not well-suited for high-inclination missions; it was the heaviest of the orbiters, ...
Martin's answer offers a great overview and a link to a hidden gem - transcribed interview with Michael Foale, covering the incident and its aftermath in a great detail. I'd like to share the most interesting bits here as an answer for reference. The whole transcript is a very very interesting and chilling reading, what follows are some terse excerpts (so ...
437 days in a single stretch.
The mammal was a relatively standard specimen of Homo sapiens sapiens. Known affectionately as Valeri Polyakov by his handlers, the subject was launched to orbit on-board Soyuz TM-6 on August 29, 1988.
The mammalian subject was allowed free movement in a spacious 350 cubic meter enclosure, provided with a diet consisting of ...
A couple from personal experience:
If the station has several identical or nearly-identical components externally, label them with labels big enough to be seen from windows. The US segment of the space station contains eight massive solar arrays. When looking at imagery of them, it is often quite difficult to discern exactly which piece of hardware I'm ...
Mayak (Lighthouse/beacon) or URS truss, mounted on Salyut-7 in May 1986.
Unfortunately, it is not the Sofora Arm, but the predecessor to it.
From EVA's carried out from May 28 1986 to May 31 1986, Cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov installed the URS (also known as Mayak) truss on the front compartment of the station, after ...
Yes, this was done during the EO-21 mission via a spacewalk from Mir in May 1996.
The deployment was filmed (or videotaped) for use in a TV commercial. The balloon was not intended to be visible directly from the surface of the Earth.
Additional info here.
It doesn't have to be an external torque, consider for example the crew changing position inside the space station, although the maximal torque provided by moving the entire crew to the Kvant-1 is only going to change the rotation rate by 0.15%.
Note: This is not violating the conservation of momentum, as they are simply changing the centre of mass in an ...
I am not aware of any structural dynamics tests conducted on the ISS using crewmembers as 'excitation sources'. However, the ISS does have a build-in structural dynamics sensor system consisting of accelerometers and strain gauges. This paper describes some early tests where a laser imaging system was also used. Jet firings and spacecraft dockings ...
The best I was able to find is this description of the event by Michael Foale. In short reactive thrusters of the docked Soyuz spacecraft was used to reorient the whole station. And, in the periods of time when onboard system had temporally enough energy to maintain at least radio link with ground control center, MIR thrusters (commanded from the ground) ...
For the US space program, it started in Skylab.
Vacuuming of the Orbital Workshop mixing chamber screen, the waste
management compartment screen, and other environmental control system
screens was performed on an as-needed basis, usually about every other
day. Screens with large mesh did not require vacuuming since most of
the debris passed through them. ...
EVA's have turned out to be an impractical way to work in space.
Service robots are taking over even on the crewed ISS.
Many of the different health problems with microgravity have
been discovered in much greater detail. It could be a profound takeaway if it means that the next space station will have to be designed with rotating so called artificial ...
CelesTrack has Mir ephemerides (as TLE, two-line element sets) in its NORAD Two-Line Element Sets Historical Archives. It's a 755 KB in size ZIP archive (direct link) packing a text file with 22,333 TLE spanning time period from February 19, 1986 to March 23, 2001 when it was deorbited. If these don't go far enough back in time for your needs, you can ...
First off, here's a picture (source: NASA) of the inside of the MIR node with something connected in every direction:
There's also a video here where the node is traversed, but I can't find any pictures from before all the ports were occupied.
It's not particularly spacious, but in the picture only one cone-shaped drogue hatch cover is clearly visible, as ...
The Kristall (crystal) module of Mir carried a number of payloads for carrying out metallurgy and crystal growth experiments and was dubbed a factory in Soviet Press, as it was supposed to manufacture semiconductor samples for Soviet industries. The instruments abroad Kristall included,
Krater-V electrical furnace- for producing perfect gallium arsenide and ...
Here is the list of people (11) I have found so far:
Norman Thagard, Soyuz TM-21, Mir, STS-71
Gennady Strekalov, Soyuz TM-21, Mir, STS-71
Vladimir Dezhurov, Soyuz TM-21, Mir, STS-71
Anatoly Solovyev, STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
Nikolai Budarin, STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
Late in its life, Mir suffered significant failures, a lot.
Designed for only a five-year life, the aging Mir suffered a series of equipment failures and accidents in 1996–97 but remained in service.
Around the STS-86 time frame, Mir was prone to failures of its attitude control computer.
This made Mir start to ...
Long term international cooperation is hard
And it might not come with only advantages, such as share the assembly and operational costs, share science, technology, infrastructure, services, increase IP portfolio and so on.
Some disadvantages are apparent since the Crimea crisis and US/EU sanctions against Russia, when momentarily, even the immediate future ...
I think I found the answer.
Because the Lyappa arm, was not attached to the Mir node, rather the docking node had a connection point, that the modules launched with a Lyappa arm, could latch onto to rotate themeselves.
Thus since Soyuz did not launch with such an arm attached it could not be moved to a side port.
This is because I am interested in ...
An answer of two parts, part one:
From what I have seen, http://www.hightechscience.org/toru.htm is the only site to include Salyut in the list of stations with TORU installed on it.
And I do believe it is erroneous.
I read a really long time ago, and unfortunately cannot remember where I read it, but it pretty much covered the same as the comment posted and ...
All these craft were designed to maintain the rough equivalent of a sea level atmosphere.
Reference: Life Support Concepts for Space Travel
Shuttle Environmental Control and Life Support System Mission Control Center screenshot from STS-88
Reference: Personal notes
Reference: Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine
The Soyuz space ship uses an atmosphere ...
For your first question, it was definitely not the first teletype printer:
The airlock module had other functions, too. In it were located the controls for the temperature of the Skylab and the purification system of its air. In addition to the space station's electrical control and hazard warning systems, the module also had a Teletype printer, like that ...
The major claimed advantage of the APAS was that it can be applied to more massive vehicles because it incorporates a damping system. Buran was going to be much more massive than Soyuz.
Source: United We Orbit
Due to the fact that gravity follows an inverse square law with distance. So an object twice as far away from the centre of another object will only feel half of the gravitational force.
So for a long tubular space station pointing at the centre of the Earth the end nearest the Earth will feel a greater force of gravity than the end furthest from the Earth. ...
Confirmed that (unencrypted) teletype existed on Salyut 2, from one of the programmers on the teams, with an amusing note on where they got the magnetic tape from:
On board the Salyut-2 and the Salyut-3 stations, the Salyut-2M computers were installed. It had a tape drive... Magnetic tape for this drive was taken from American balloons. The ...
(cropped and sharpened)
its the probe.
I had previously counted out the probe for the following reasons:
probe is always retracted in flight
probe extends for docking only
even if blister window is used, probe is not seen in flight
blister window is really painfully small space to be taking important picture in
my assumption was always the usual side ...
Many more smaller launchers means smaller modules. That is a limit on absolute volume limits.
Inflatables are a way to handle this. Launch them folded, expand in space, in a later launch deliver water that is stored in the walls as additional radiation shielding. So smaller launch, additional launches for outfitting.
Volume is not always a limit though. ...