I believe that's the Sofora girder which was made up of 20 segments totalling 14 metres in length. There was an RCS thruster at the top end which made it easier to orient the station and used less propellant. It was assembled by Anatoli Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev during four EVAs in July 1991 and the thruster pack installed by Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli ...
Mayak (Lighthouse/beacon) or URS truss, mounted on Salyut-7 in May 1986.
Unfortunately, it is not the Sofora Arm, but the predecessor to it.
From EVA's carried out from May 28 1986 to May 31 1986, Cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov installed the URS (also known as Mayak) truss on the front compartment of the station, after ...
For your first question, it was definitely not the first teletype printer:
The airlock module had other functions, too. In it were located the controls for the temperature of the Skylab and the purification system of its air. In addition to the space station's electrical control and hazard warning systems, the module also had a Teletype printer, like that ...
Late in its life, Mir suffered significant failures, a lot.
Designed for only a five-year life, the aging Mir suffered a series of equipment failures and accidents in 1996–97 but remained in service.
Around the STS-86 time frame, Mir was prone to failures of its attitude control computer.
This made Mir start to ...
An answer of two parts, part one:
From what I have seen, http://www.hightechscience.org/toru.htm is the only site to include Salyut in the list of stations with TORU installed on it.
And I do believe it is erroneous.
I read a really long time ago, and unfortunately cannot remember where I read it, but it pretty much covered the same as the comment posted and ...
Confirmed that (unencrypted) teletype existed on Salyut 2, from one of the programmers on the teams, with an amusing note on where they got the magnetic tape from:
On board the Salyut-2 and the Salyut-3 stations, the Salyut-2M computers were installed. It had a tape drive... Magnetic tape for this drive was taken from American balloons. The ...
(cropped and sharpened)
its the probe.
I had previously counted out the probe for the following reasons:
probe is always retracted in flight
probe extends for docking only
even if blister window is used, probe is not seen in flight
blister window is really painfully small space to be taking important picture in
my assumption was always the usual side ...
Due to the fact that gravity follows an inverse square law with distance. So an object twice as far away from the centre of another object will only feel half of the gravitational force.
So for a long tubular space station pointing at the centre of the Earth the end nearest the Earth will feel a greater force of gravity than the end furthest from the Earth. ...
This is actually quite interesting problem, which has a few levels to it:
In first order approximation, there is a tendency to align the orbiting body vertically with its mass extending as much as possible either above or below the orbit without difference if it is up or down. This is the effect described in the linked wikipedia article.
But there is higher-...
Because previous Soviet experience (and Krikalev's personal experience) with uncrewed space stations did not go well.
Of the 9 Soviet space stations prior to Mir, only 5 were intentionally terminated: Salyut 1 (after the deaths of the 3 Soyuz 11 comsmonauts), Salyut 3, Salyut 4, Salyut 5, and Salyut 6. Two more stations (DOS-2 and Kosmos 557) failed to ...