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Here are some examples: when the ground terminals on Earth use a low enough frequency that they are more or less omni-directional and don't need to point exactly at the satellite. In such a case it doesn't matter so much if the satellite is not at 0.0 inclination. This has typically been done with L-band/S-band. The benefit is saving the cost of the station-...


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Lensing is caused by the ability of a mass to bend light, which angle can be expressed as: $$\theta = \frac{\mu}{rc^2}$$ Where $\mu$ is the gravitational parameter, $r$ the distance to the mass, and $c$ the speed of light. From this, we can find the closest point where light bend around the body into a focus. $$r_{min} = \frac{r_{body}}{\sin\left(\frac{\...


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