67

The Neil Armstrong's "First step on the Moon" was filmed by a camera installed on the MESA (Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly) at the side of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) descent stage that Neil Armstrong had to pull a lanyard to unlock the pallet and make it drop open. A switch inside the LM, operated by Buzz Aldrin, then activated the TV camera which ...


30

The simplest would be defining some arbitrary impact velocity that is at the limit of being fatal, and we then consider everything else (surface properties, subject's physique,...) except gravitational acceleration constant. We can also neglect air resistance to make it simpler, since we're more interested in a safe height to jump off on the Moon, than that ...


26

That's not a Ziploc bag, but the retroreflector's dust cover. Here is a larger image of it removed:     And here's an image with the cover still attached to the retroreflector:     The clue is in the use of the red markings along the edges of the part in question, in spaceflight commonly used to indicate parts that need to ...


24

The black thing on the right is a SNAP-27 RTG. and the box on the left is an ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) that it powers. Here's a picture of the ALSEP for Apollo 12: And here is Alan Bean attaching it to the RTG with the antenna to make the barbell object in your original image: As to the second part of the question, it is clearly a ...


18

While not on the lunar surface, it turns out that in-flight footage of donning and removing suits inside the LM during the Apollo 16 mission does exist. One source is https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/239627/view however the origin is presumably a government document available from other places as well. The perspective is surprisingly good for cramped ...


17

Going away from the scientific answers, and more towards the psychological answers, I'd like to approach how one makes a mistake bad enough to break a bone. The first step involves getting enough energy to break the bone with a fall in the first place. The body should naturally do a reasonable job of balancing the muscle strength needed to do tasks against ...


15

The shoes of the A7L suit were white with partly-blue "lunar boots" worn over them, but soon were covered in grey-ish dust once on the moon. Have a look at this image on Wikipedia:


15

According to Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal, Armstrong made his first description of the regolith as soon as he stepped out from the ladder and pronounced his famous "giant leap" phrase: 109:23:38 Armstrong: I'm at the foot of the ladder. The LM footpads are only depressed in the surface about 1 or 2 inches, although the surface appears to be ...


13

There are 3 main threats you'd have to account for: Vacuum. This is discussed in the questions @Forgemonkey linked to. Conclusion: brief exposure of the feet only is survivable. Temperature. Surface temperatures on the Moon swing between + 120 and - 150 °C, so you'd have to pick your spot carefully to have a survivable temperature. Cuts and abrasion. ...


12

Apollo 11 deployed the Early Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), a set of scientific instruments that measured various parameters on the moon and transmitted them back to the earth, this included temperature. Here is a picture of Edwin Aldrin deploying the EASEP: There is a Technical Memorandum from Bellcomm Titled: Lunar Surface Temperatures ...


12

To answer the last part of your question: yes, it was normal to throw away stuff that was no longer needed. On Apollo 11 alone, the astronauts left behind more than 100 items, including four urine containers, several airsickness bags, a Hasselblad camera, lunar overshoes and a complete moon-landing step. The astronauts left behind as much as possible, to ...


9

The Lunar module had a habitable volume of 160 cubic foot (4.5 cubic metre). The crew compartment floor was about 36 by 55 inches (3 by 4.6 foot or 0.91 by 1.4 metre) There was a circuit breaker damaged accidentally by Aldrin on Apollo 11. The breaker would arm the main engine for lift off from the Moon. So all later astronauts knew they had to behave ...


9

Without going into detailed calculations, I recall that the gravitational acceleration on the Moon's surface is about $\frac16$ of what it is on the Earth's surface. Now by the simple formula that work is force times distance, for an object to acquire the same kinetic energy (and therefore the same velocity) as falling from a height $h$ on Earth, it should ...


8

The Asteroid Redirect Mission concept shows two strategies that should minimize problems: the asteroid will be transported inside a bag. the asteroid will be placed in a 'distant retrograde orbit', at an altitude of 70,000 km. These orbits are stable, and far away from any orbit you'd want to use for landing on the Moon. In both cases, the spacecraft ...


8

On Apollo 16 Charlie Duke jumped up and fell on his backpack. Duke said he rolled right to break his fall but still bounced onto his backpack, also called a portable life-support system, or PLSS. https://www.businessinsider.com/apollo-astronaut-charles-duke-moon-jump-video-2019-6?amp Edit 2020-10-07 To the question, Do astronauts play reduced gravity ...


7

I'm starting to sound like a broken record, but I agree with Tildal's post (yet again). There is one more thing I would add that concerns an Earth native who recently travels to the Moon. Jumping ability comes from strength in muscles and tendons, while bones support weight. It is possible to jump on Earth and sprain an ankle and such if one jumps too high ...


7

It looks like he was about 2-3 feet away judging by his height. The chance of him tripping and falling is very small. If he did happen to though it appears the crater had about a 50% grade at the steepest. It would be possible to climb out, especially with the much lower gravity. It might be a bit difficult with the spacesuit. I think the big danger would be ...


7

Well for starters the 3rd guy was orbiting the moon, not on the moon so it would be impossible for him to set foot on the moon, But the real reason was they needed someone to make sure everything in the command module was ok. If there was nobody up there orbiting it would have been much harder to dock and they would possibly miss the command module. After ...


7

Yes, but it would be tricky. First, I will assume from your question that this bike riding will happen indoors, in a shirt-sleeves environment that does not yet exist, such as a lunar station. Riding a bike during EVA would be a very different proposition, and I will not comment on it. Several lunar station proposals have included stationary bicycles as a ...


6

My answers to very similar quesions, " What would the human gait look like on Mars?" and "How would humans with appropriate equipment travel the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on foot?" are cogent here, along with a couple other concepts. But the answer depends on what "significantly less gravity" means. First, being in an environment where you don't need ...


6

You could, though gaseous nitrogen and a pressure hose are usually used for such purging of contaminants. Such purging systems were also installed on Discovery and Atlantis Space Shuttle Orbiters for the purpose of purging payloads. Problem with water is that it's heavier for the task, it tends to freeze in and around the nozzle without constant source of ...


6

First of all, let's ask how far does a fall from Earth have to be to have injury? For simplicity, I'm going to assume a health middle aged adult, the typical range for astronauts. Looking around, the height of serious injury on the Earth appears to be 7 m, or something relatively close to that. In fact, the height might be even lower. I'm also going to ...


5

How far could one fall on the moon before sustaining injuries? As on Earth, it really depends how you land. High-jumpers land on crash mats, therefore it seems reasonable to suppose that on Earth it's possible to jump high enough to sustain injuries on landing, anyway if you choose to land on the back of your shoulders and head. I certainly would not choose ...


5

Although this question has many answers already, I thought I'd add a more general answer How far could a human fall in a pressurised environment on various solar system bodies? I'm imagining that there are multi-story habitats on various bodies in the solar system, all pressurised to 1 atm. I'm also imagining that these habitats have a 'lift shaft' of ...


5

The landing time was selected to avoid the extreme temperatures. That's why there are huge shadows, the Sun's declination is low (I don't remember if it was early morning or late afternoon). During the 22 hours they were on the surface (Apollo 11, some others up to 4 Earth days IIRC) the lunar day didn't progress too much.


4

I'm very sure that this is the Lunar Equipment Conveyor. The Lunar Equipment Conveyor (LEC) is a device which the astronauts will use during the EVA to transfer equipment to or from the ascent stage. It may also be used by the crewmen as a safety tether when moving down the ladder or as an aid in ascending to the ascent stage. The LEC is a 60 foot ...


3

This study explores the mechanisms behind dust levitation. Itputs the levitation altitude at 10 cm. The study also shows why the Surveyor landers recorded a glow that can be attributed to levitating dust, but Apollo crews didn't see this phenomenon: the effect is strongest near the terminator (day/night border). This model suggests the dust is really ...


3

I would like to add that there is no real definite "fatal" velocity at the point of impact. It is much easier to suffer a fatal fall resulting from damaged life-support equipment in a spacesuit on the Moon than it would be to suffer a fall which was fatal due to injuries sustained from the fall itself. In most cases of extreme impact like this, the ...


3

For the record here's a direct quote, from the same article Hobbes discovered: “The dust was so abrasive that it actually wore through three layers of Kevlar-like material on Jack [Schmitt’s] boot.” – Professor Larry Taylor, Director of the Planetary Geosciences Institute, University of Tennessee (2008) I observe that the "ground" on Earth is soil, ...


3

It makes sense to have more than one headlight. If you have a single headlight, you create hard shadows behind obstacles. With two or more lights placed in different locations on the rover, the amount of shadow reduces. It also adds redundancy. These days, people here on Earth who drive in unlit terrain have switched to light bars, which take this idea a ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible