210

To be honest, I don't know how to measure atmospheric pressure, so I cannot discriminate on that basis. Initially my answer only included unmanned missions, but based on suggestions I've decided to add the Apollo missions as well. Moon The first landers performed intentionally hard landings and did not get pictures from the surface. I want to include them ...


161

The photo (frame 3021) appears to have been taken from an approximate altitude of 1180 KM, on the return journey to Earth. We infer it was taken on the return journey as frame 3005 was taken after trans-Earth injection. And, presumably, by "Revolution: TE" in the image's information. The image information tells us the photo was taken by the Metric/Mapping ...


103

NVIDIA rendered Aldrin descending to the surface and discovered that, just as the conspiracies claimed, it couldn't be reproduced with direct light from the sun as the sole light source. Of course, as in photos on Earth, indirect light (reflected, scattered...) is an important source of scene illumination and must be taken into account. After adding the ...


75

Yes, here is a picture of the Curiosity lander spacecraft taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The picture was taken about one minute prior to the landing of Curiosity. Image from https://www.space.com/16946-mars-rover-landing-seen-from-space.html If landed craft are allowed, there are also pictures of Mars rovers from Mars orbiters, asteroid ...


53

No, because Mars can't have eclipses. Strictly speaking, Mars has only transits. The difference is that Mars's moons are smaller than the Sun as viewed from Mars, thus they don't block out the entire sun. Eclipses are defined as only occurring if the entire sun is blocked, or at least the vast majority. Phobos blocks out only about 60% of the sun at most. ...


51

The Mars Odyssey orbiter was photographed by Mars Global Surveyor in 2005. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mgs_odyssey.gif https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07941 Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars ...


44

The astronauts on the moon had the same problem as the photos - their eyes were adapted to the light levels reflected from the moon's surface, so it was almost as hard to see the stars as it is to see them from Earth during the day. Neil Armstrong said, in a post-Apollo 11 press conference: "we were never able to see stars from the lunar surface or on the ...


44

No; the first full views of Earth from high-altitude satellites predate Apollo 8 by at least two years. This web page has a nice progression of pictures of Earth from space from 1959 on. A Soviet satellite (possibly Molniya-1-3) took this crude picture on May 30, 1966: DODGE took this picture in September of 1967; this is believed to be the first full-...


42

These cameras had magazines that could be exchanged in the middle of a roll (and that was one reason NASA chose them). Here's a photo of John Young exchanging a magazine during an EVA on Apollo 16: So, no need to wait until they were back in the LEM. This long PDF has more detail on the film change process. A standard Hasselblad magazine has a ...


39

Yes, it is a mosaic made of 55 images from the MAHLI camera on the arm. The arm was deliberately removed from the images where bits of it showed up. See this description, including a video of how it was done. The arm motions were very carefully planned to cover the rover and surface around it by changing the angle of the camera, but not the absolute ...


38

The astronauts did a lot of training with the cameras. The used 60 mm wide angle lens (angular field diagonal 63°, side 47°) and the large image format (53 * 53 mm) helped them in framing. The 500 mm lens had a special notch and bead viewfinder, see first image. Image of a suited training from this page. Apollo 16 geologic training-exercises in Sudbury,...


33

Don Pettit mentioned a an experiment set up with the San Antonio Astronomical Scociety who pointed both spotlights and a blue laser pointer at the ISS, pictured below in a 5-10 second exposure: I believe, but don't quote me on this, that the laser pointer was seen while the spotlight was not (with the aperture used). This is a picture from the ground, ...


30

There are limits. For one, there's atmospheric effects that scatter light in visible wavelength spectrum. You might be able to penetrate clouds and haze easier in the lower end of the spectrum and towards the infrared wavelengths, and those might still be usable for facial recognition though. Another limit is aperture of optical equipment used to take ...


30

That image was taken by the Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC). It's located on the arm. With the arm in stowed position, it's logical that a section of the deck is in view. In other words, it's an engineering instrument, not a science instrument.


30

Why not? Because we can't. We don't have full-time communication with Curiosity: Curiosity sends data to the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey. These are overhead twice a day at 12-hour intervals. MRO and MO are in sun-synchronous orbits, so the planet rotates underneath the orbiter and they cover the entire planet in 1 day. Both are in orbits ...


29

some examples: LRO images of the Apollo landing sites. This is Apollo 11: Cassini and Huygens: this is Huygens as seen by Cassini, 12 hours after Huygens was released. Rosetta and Philae. During descent: Philae's final landing location: Hayabusa 2 and its many landers. This is a photo of Minerva-II-2 taken by Hayabusa 2:


27

would the photography be good enough for facial recognition? Not yet. It's not even close. Facial recognition requires 50 to 100 pixels between the eyes, or on the order of 1 millimeter resolution. To see that kind of detail from a distance of 250 kilometers using blue-green light (500 nm) would require a lens or mirror that is 125 meters in diameter. Note: ...


26

Spacecraft that take pictures take them similar to a digital camera. However, the camera is very far away. Similar to downloading a movie off of a website so you can watch it on your local device, it takes time to transmit those images. However, because the distance is so far away, it can take a lot of time to download the images. The images reside on a ...


24

The initial Lunar orbit was roughly 100x300 km, with the further point being at the far side. From the mission transcripts, we learn of a request to photograph the Moon at the terminator, at the far side (Because there was no communication with Earth) Using this simple calculator, I find that only 7% of the Moon's surface would have been visible at 300 km. ...


23

There are two parts to this question. One is around speed (or apparent angular velocity) and one is around size. The Moon's apparent velocity is small, so it is easy to set up a telescope or camera to take a photograph at an appropriate exposure. Many satellites, and the ISS are much closer, so the apparent velocity from the observer's perspective is a ...


22

Millions. Meteorological satellites constantly take photos of Earth in a very wide spectrum, and the visible spectrum is a part of it, and many of these satellites travel on pretty high orbits with good overview of the whole Earth. There are many portals with these photos; finding specifically visible spectrum images may be tricky, but, say, pick any hour ...


21

These crosshair marks are called registration marks and are produced by the camera optics. These marks ensure that the exact geometry of the image (and succesive angle/distance measurements) are preserved despite deformation of the negative, or deformations during image processing such as scanning or printing to paper. If you are taking images on the moon, ...


21

As it happens, on Apollo 17, Gene Cernan got a picture of Jack Schmitt using a handheld camera with the 500mm lens on the surface of the moon! At the Station 6 site, Schmitt braced himself against a boulder and took some "manual panorama" series of pictures of the area. This picture is from magazine 146/F. According to the Apollo 17 image library: AS17-...


21

Although not a blue marble as it's in black and white, Lunar Orbiter 1 took an earlier Earthrise photo on August 23, 1966. This is the first picture of the Earth from Lunar orbit. In 2008, the Lunar Orbiter Image Recovery Project produced a higher-quality version of this image by reanalyzing the original data. Lunar Orbiter 1 also took a second Earthrise ...


21

Added as a (now largely unnecessary) extension to the explanation of the training Well framed images, such as this one actually weren't that well framed a little black border added at the top really helps (thank goodness there are no antennas sticking up, eh?) and cutting out that noisy foreground has the double benefit of leaving just a single track of ...


20

No, Hubble is in low Earth orbit, much lower than the Moon. The shuttle delivered it to orbit, and the Shuttle can't get near the Moon. The image you reference is very similar to one that came from DSCOVR, which is at a point about a million miles from Earth between the Earth and Sun, which always sees the sunlit portion of the Earth. However, there are ...


20

Several space selfies were made and chances are you already know the very first one Buzz Aldrin took of himself during Gemini 12. The cameras used are large-ish but imagine even holding a shoe box in front of you with thick gloves on: you're still able to point it at yourself in a distance suitable to make a photograph of yourself, provided the lens' focal ...


20

From the Johns Hopkins University page: It is possible that another flyby target can be found and reached with New Horizons' remaining fuel supply. And after that? Another exciting possibility is that we can dramatically augment New Horizons' capabilities by uploading new observing and onboard data-reduction software once the spacecraft's flyby ...


19

(10 year old version) The pictures are sent by radio, and the radio signals travel at the speed of light. Although the speed of light is very fast, it is not unlimited, and space probes can be very far away. So the time that elapses is simply the time it takes for the radio waves to travel at the speed of light over the very long distances between the ...


19

As discussed here, very few satellites have ever orbited at a higher altitude than the moon, making images from lunar orbiters our highest imagers of eclipses from orbit. In fact, in order to get a 1:1 ratio of the apparent sizes of the Sun and the Earth you would have to be at ~4x the altitude of the moon - right near the edge of Earth's Hill Sphere. This ...


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