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You would not see anything, which is the same as appearing as if time stopped. As you approach 1c, the light has trouble reaching you and appears to drop in wavelength, becoming redder, and eventually invisible as it is stretched out more and more. Conversely, light reaching you from in front becomes higher frequency, so bluer, eventually turning into high ...


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tl;dr: Yes you've got it all right as far as I can tell. An atomic mass unit is about 1.66E-27 kg so the mass discussed there (2.2E-23 kg) is about 13,000 AMU which is quite a hefty molecule or a nanoparticle with many hundred atoms. The force is given by $$F = qE$$ With $q$ in coulombs and $E$ in volts/meter the force will be in Newtons and indeed it will ...


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I think the term is used like it is with automobiles. According to Wikipedia's hybrid electric vehicle page they don't have to operate together to be a hybrid (at least for autos). I would think that keeping the trusty R-4D, see Wikipedia's "Used In", adds the some all important reliability to the system.


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Okay, so my previous approach didn't work out. So let's try another. Hydrogen need not have any more ISP than reinforced concrete. Indeed, there's little difference between the two if you are simply throwing hydrogen canisters out of the nozzle to get thrust. That is, if you are accelerating the reaction mass that is stationary macroscopically and ...


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Why lighter atoms work better as fuel for a rocket: The simple explanation, with concept only no numbers. A rocket takes an amount of energy, puts that energy into matter, and that causes the matter to be shoved out the rear of the rocket, producing thrust. (The energy usually comes from chemical reactions, thus heat. But it could also be pure thermal, or ...


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