Questions tagged [radiation]

Questions about impact of radiation on space exploration.

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2
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1answer
126 views

Is radiation on Mars line-of-sight? [duplicate]

Roughly a year ago, there was a TV show about colonizing Mars; National Geographic channel I think. The habitats were underground to avoid the Sun's radiation. So I'm wondering: does the radiation ...
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Highest frequencies of EMPs in space

When a nuke detonates, an EMP at about 100 MHz followd. A pulsar on the other hand, has a comparatively low frequency, and while I know that this frequency depends on its spin and doesn't represent ...
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Resources/guidelines on space electronics compliance?

Space hardware suffers from various effects such as radiation, heating, vibration, off-gassing, material degradation and so on. While these effects are mentioned in most space engineering books, I am ...
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1answer
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How will the future Mars Space Suit Helmet design protect Astronauts from Martian Radiation?

Mars Space Suit Helmet Visor's were mostly made up of polycarbonate [1], the same material used for EMU's visor for performing EVA in earth orbit. Meanwhile, Mars' radiation is 2.5x higher. How are we ...
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1answer
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Rad-Hard vs Space-Hard computing

Radiation hardened CPUs like RAD750 are radiation hardened for up to 1000 gray. Cool. But, as CPUs have advanced way ahead their mechanical counterparts in miniaturization and fragility, energy ...
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1answer
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What makes Insight's RAD750 processor so radiation resistant? (compared to 1998 iMac's PowerPC 750)

Gizmodo's A 1990s iMac Processor Powers NASA’s Perseverance Rover references NewScientist and says: However, there’s a major difference between the iMac’s CPU and the one inside the Perseverance ...
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Can we power things (like cars or similar rovers) on earth in the same way Perseverance generates power?

I was watching a video on the engineering of Perseverance and it states that the rover is powered by 4.8kg of Plutonium Dioxide. I was wondering if that similar process of electricity generation can ...
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1answer
503 views

How radioactive is surface regolith on the Moon?

Use of regolith for shielding from cosmic radiation seems the most practical solution for perspective lunar surface bases. But lunar regolith should gather some secondary radiation while being ...
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Satellites | Debris & EMR

Over time we are launching plethora of communication satellites into space, with old ones reaching their lifespan and new ones replacing them. My Question is two folds: Are we simply creating more ...
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154 views

Are Solid State Hard Drives in space made from radiation-hardened FLASH memory, or do they just use older technology with higher voltage and charge?

Answers to Why is the James Webb Space Telescope's storage space so small? have got me thinking. Solid State Hard Drives (SSDs) are usually made from FLASH memory though alternatives like magnetic ...
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2answers
105 views

For deep space missions, how thick must the water filled layer within the ship's hull be to effectively shield against cosmic rays? [closed]

Initially i proposed a 27cm thick barrier. But im not really sure thatll be enough
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How close a crewed spacecraft could orbit Jupiter?

How close could a crewed spacecraft orbit Jupiter? I read that Juno was as close as 5,000 km from Jupiter's top clouds, but I'm wondering about a spacecraft with humans inside (provided it's protected ...
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How does steel deteriorate in translunar space?

To confirm the identity of a 1966 Centaur booster returning near earth in 2020, NASA took some spectroscopy observations. They didn't match those of the same metal (301 stainless steel) on earth, ...
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What is the required laser intensity to ionize interstellar gas in front of a Bussard ramjet?

In a Bussard ramjet interstellar gas is collected using a large magnetic field to be fused and used as reaction mass. While a number of papers have explored the constraints on the magnetic field, what ...
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How do deep-space spacecraft and space stations protect the crew and electronic equipment from radiation during long-duration missions?

Question: How would a deep-space spacecraft protect its crew and electronics from cosmic radiation, solar wind, and solar events? I'm trying to design a hypothetical space station and have been doing ...
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1answer
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Could the magnetosphere of Mercury protect humans?

In theory, we built a space station orbiting Mercury like the ISS on Earth. Will the magnetosphere of Mercury similarly protect humans from this radiation (despite being close to the sun)?
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Can an electrostatic shield provide protection from the Van Allen belt?

Would an electrostatic shield provide enough protection for a crewed space craft to survive in the Van Allen belt for more then an hour?
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Could Laika have survived the Van Allen radiation during the intended duration of her mission?

Laika the dog was the first animal in space, aboard Sputnik 2. According to this answer, her mission was intended for 10 days, but Laika survived only 2 days due to the spacecraft overheating. ...
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1answer
395 views

What does it take to survive the radiation on the surface of Ganymede?

Out of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter, unfortunately only Callisto is at a safe distance from its parent planet that the radiation is low enough so one is able to colonize it. Io is totally ...
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What is the radiation level at the L2 Mars-Sun point?

This answer shows that the radiation levels at the L2 Mars-Sun point will be lower because it lies within Mars' solar umbra. So what will the level of radiation be at the L2 Mars-Sun point? Also, how ...
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Would astronauts on the ISS be affected by the radiation from a global nuclear war?

I was wondering what would happen to the ISS astronauts if some global disaster wiped out all ground support. This question tells us that a 2-person crew might survive up to a year on stockpiled food ...
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4answers
272 views

If solar radiation can heat up gas particles in the thermosphere, why will it not heat up a spacecraft?

NASA says that the reason why a spacecraft does not get hot in the thermosphere is because there are not enough gas particles to come into contact with the spacecraft to heat it up. If you were ...
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1answer
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How will space suit computers likely be radiation hardened?

Writing this comment inspired the following question: Space suits are critical to life, so if there's a solar storm and the astronaut has received a less-than-lethal dose of radiation, they'll be ...
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1answer
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How Safe Is Phobos in Terms of Radiation Exposure?

I am wondering if Mars' body provides enough protection against radiation on Phobos. The lack of magnosphere is a significant factor highly worsening the radiation exposure, making the planet ...
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1answer
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Influence of solar wind and radiation pressure on a sail

Solar wind is composed of a mixture of materials travelling between 250 and 750 km per second. Radiation pressure involves electromagnetic field travelling at light speed. If considering a sail in ...
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2answers
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Were there any noticeable immune system changes observed for people staying for long in space?

I have read this article about how difficult is to send ships to another possible habitable world. One aspect deals with the human bacterial companions which might be greatly affected by prolonged ...
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1answer
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How is Parker Solar Probe so robust against coronal mass ejections?

Phys.org's Revealing the physics of the Sun with Parker Solar Probe quotes "Tim Horbury, a lead researcher on Parker Solar Probe's FIELDS instruments based at Imperial College London" as saying: "...
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Why make X-ray shielding from titanium, when lead is 6 times lighter?

Probes visiting Jupiter and its moons protect their equipment from X-rays with titanium shielding. Juno had 180 kg of the stuff. Europa Clipper is expected to have about that much too. Terrestrial ...
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1answer
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Did the Apollo missions fly “over the top” of the Van Allen radiation belts?

In the video The Moon Trees That Flew To The Moon On Apollo 14 after about 08:47 Scott Manley says that Apollo 14 "flew up over the top" of the Van Allen radiation ...
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3answers
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Why don't we shield existing CPUs from radiation instead of designing new ones?

I've just read this article about space-graded CPUs [1]. I am not a space expert at all but a question was born naturally: why don't we prefer to shield earth-designed CPUs (far less expensive) than ...
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1answer
225 views

What would the Voyager probes look like today?

In the 40+ years since their launching, after traveling through the solar system and now beyond, what would the Voyager probes look like today if we could see them up close? Would they look noticeably ...
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1answer
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Is the far side of the tidally locked Europa moon safe from Jupiter's radiation?

From Wikipedia's Europa (moon); Orbit and rotation: Europa orbits Jupiter in just over three and a half days, with an orbital radius of about 670,900 km....and is tidally locked to Jupiter, with ...
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Alternatives to an ozone layer

Our home planet earth has low concentration of ozone in its atmosphere, protecting it from UV radiation, could Exoplanets share the same method but have a different gas in the atmosphere which has a ...
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Pycrete or Pycrete 2.0 Q Has there been any research for structures against radiation protection in space with Pycrete type material?

Background on Pykrete: Pykrete is a frozen ice alloy, originally made of approximately 14 percent sawdust or some other form of wood pulp (such as paper) and 86 percent ice by weight (6 to 1 by ...
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1answer
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How does not orbiting Europa maximize Clippers coverage of Europa for a given radiation dose?

According to the BBC's Nasa confirms ocean moon mission: Europa's orbital path takes it deep into belts of intense radiation that surround the giant planet. This radiation fries spacecraft ...
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1answer
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Is the BEAM module as good as a rigid module in terms of radiation/thermal properties?

It seems that NASA is going to stick with the BEAM module on the ISS for quite some time, and is currently using it for storage. That's pretty cool. However, I was wondering if the BEAM module could,...
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2answers
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When a coronal mass ejection (CME) hits a spacecraft, from which direction will the particles come?

I have long assumed that when a CME (aka solar mass ejection, SME) hits a spacecraft, its particles will be coming in a straight line from the Sun. I've learned recently that it isn't so direct, and ...
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1answer
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Could man-made, magnetic shields protect us from from sun's energetic particles from coronal mass ejections?

I read this in a published scholarly article: "...deploying a magnetic shield could enhance Mars' atmosphere and facilitate crewed missions there in the future..." It made me wonder if it is possible ...
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1answer
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What was the exact nature of the observations of “solar flare activity” that delayed the launch of Vostok 5?

The interesting story of Vostok 5 recounted in Encyclopedia Astronautica's Vostok 5 (linked in comments below this answer) includes the following passage: Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for ...
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1answer
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Aspects of “true deep space environment” on Gateway not thoroughly explored by decades of habitation of nine space stations already?

The ABC News article President Trump prompts state of confusion over space policy with tweet covers POTUS' tweet and NASA director Bridenstine's clarification tweet a few hours later, as well as cites ...
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What is the orientation of ionizing radiation exposure in spaceflight?

It strikes me that, outside of the Jovian system for the most part, the orientation of ionizing radiation exposure is entirely sunward. Thus, if you park a large enough shield between the sun and a ...
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Is the radiation exposure in a spacecraft window seat significantly different than other areas of the cabin?

Does an astronaut seated next to a window get more exposure to harmful radiation (and if so, which types of radiation) than an astronaut somewhere else in the cabin at the same time? Related: Is ...
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1answer
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Did the IBM System/4 Pi computer have radiation-hardened versions for Skylab and Shuttle?

Wikipedia's article on the IBM System/4 Pi says: The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the F-15 Eagle fighter, E-3 Sentry, AWACS, Harpoon Missile, NASA's ...
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1answer
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Going to the Lunar gateway during the upcoming solar maximum! What will the radiation environment be like?

EarthSky.org's What will the sun do next? says: On December 6, 2018, the Center of Excellence in Space Sciences India (CESSI) reported that two of its scientists have made a prediction for the ...
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How does temperature affect a solar sail?

Is there an ideal temperature which solar sail material operates at? Does a colder reflective surface create more thrust? Related: How will JWST manage solar pressure effects to maintain attitude and ...
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Suggestions required on radiation tolerance solutions

I wanted to know what methods of increasing radiance tolerance for the microcontroller and memory devices for a Cubesat exist. We have read about methods like having dual CPUs but are there any ...
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How effective is the Orion radiation protection plan?

This article gives a basic overview of the procedure for astronauts on deep space missions who need to take shelter from energetic events such as solar flares. The shelter area strongly resembles a ...
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Can an electromagnetic shield protect spacecraft from incoming radiation? [duplicate]

If we used an electromagnetic shield to protect astronauts from radiation, what could we use to power it and could it be possible?
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1answer
337 views

Did the Apollo missions use the Earth's magnetotail to lessen cosmic radiation?

I see a lot of images like this for the Apollo mission: 99% of them exclude the sun, and the ones that don't I can't be sure if they're accurate and cannot find sources. During the Apollo missions ...
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Why do SD cards perform so much better than SSDs in space?

SD cards and SSDs are based on the same technologies, so why the stark differences in performance? Recently, it was reported that after a year in space, half of the SSD drives on the HPE Spaceborne ...