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8

From the NASA web site for Juno: While other materials exist that make good radiation blockers, engineers chose titanium because lead is too soft to withstand the vibrations of launch, and some other materials were too difficult to work with. There are harder and softer lead alloys, but nothing begins to approach titanium. Later on the same page: ...


2

There were plans in place to deal with a large scale CME. These storms would not have been instantly deadly, but could have caused a serious case of acute radiation syndrome. The plan was if such an event happened was to get home ASAP, and treat the ARS on Earth. There is an article from NASA talking a bit about this. If there was a storm threatening, they ...


2

According to Wikipedia, "Whole body doses of more than 1,000 rad are almost invariably fatal" "A dose of 100 to 200 rad delivered to the entire body in less than a day may cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS), but is usually not fatal" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rad_(unit) According to Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal, https://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/...


16

Not exactly "over the top" (still through the outer portion of the belts), but yes, it appears so, according to this source https://web.archive.org/web/20171124132216/http://braeunig.us:80/apollo/apollo11-TLI.htm, There are simplified trajectory plots shown in the link. Also this source https://www.moonhoaxdebunked.com/2017/07/82-how-come-van-allen-...


14

You actually ask a really good question. And the answer is, we do both, depending on the needs. NASA tends to go for the ultra-reliable, and radiation tolerant components are more reliable, thus it is their preferred way. Many commercial satellites, however, use non-space grade components that are shielded lightly, and with software and hardware built in a ...


2

Throwing some rough and ready math at the question, happy to be corrected by anybody with actual numbers. Hardening increases the radiation level to trigger errors by several orders of magnitude, call it 1000 for this. Dropping the radiation by a factor of 1000 to a 10cm cube would take about half a mm of lead, adding up to something like 250g. Most ...


73

Because shielding against radiation is heavy, and weight is the enemy of getting things into space. CPUs are quite sensitive to radiation, and some types of radiation (cosmic rays) are not only quite good at penetrating most things, as they do, they cause a cascade of secondary radiation. To protect a device form any of this radiation getting through is not ...


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