There is a very nice Myth Busters video about bouncing a laser off the Moon linked below.
To answer your question, current work is done with an array of corner cube reflectors on the Moon roughly 50 x 50 cm in size. Pulsed lasers on Earth have traditionally been green frequency-doubled infrared Nd:YAG lasers, similar to the "classic" DPSS green laser ...
Had a bit of a gander at what NASA Technical Report Server and Semantic Scholar had to offer and found a couple things that I reckon might be helpful.
NASA created a 1/10 scale model of the Saturn V for a study vehicle dynamics and you can read the report here
This gives us these two schematics.
They also created a 1/25 scale model for aerodynamic testing. (...
The University of Texas's McDonald Observatory performs laser measurements of the distance to the Moon using retroreflectors left by the Apollo astronauts.
You can read all about it in the McDonald Laser Ranging page.
Lots of technical details in this paper.
There's a more detailed profile drawing available for download at the bottom of this Heroic Relics page. Here's a representative slice:
It used to be possible to get an inexpensive print of a cleaned-up, white-on blue version of this, 180cm long. (I have one, it's beautiful. The custom frame cost much more than the print.)
Schachterle, Lance, and P. K. Aravind. "The three equations in Gravity's Rainbow." Pynchon Notes 46-49 (2000): 157-170.
"In our view, Pynchon inscribes these equations into Gravity's Rainbow to challenge readers with yet another form of authority within the text."
Sorry—hit a pay wall...
Later: Got through the pay wall:
Here is the Apollo 11 (Columbia and Eagle) graph of center of gravity during the AS-506 flight, taken from the APOLLO/SATURN V POSTFLIGHT TRAJECTORY - AS-506 (rather large scanned PDF):
I selected Apollo 11 flight for historical significance, but you could find many other postflight telemetry and flight analysis ...
Truax was advocating "design for minimum cost". As this paper here (starting on page 140) explains, this philosophy of design would probably include a number of changes to how spacecraft were designed.
I think this sentence is the key:
The fundamental premise that the DFMC concept rests upon is that, by
using a clean-sheet design approach, a space ...
Launching a CubeSat is by their nature a difficult process. They are designed as a secondary payload, which means that the primary payload dictates the entire launch.
There are some programs such as NASA's CubeSat initiative, which provide free rides to educational projects.
For commercial launches, data is spotty. One CubeSat reportedly launched for 100k (...
For integration into software, I would recommend the SPICE toolkit, available with interfaces for C, Fortran, IDL, and MATLAB, and the many SPK kernels that can be loaded into SPICE containing the most accurate ephemerides available for the planets and their satellites. For specific small bodies you can use the HORIZONS system to generate SPK kernels, or you ...
The most famous Christmas-related event was on the Apollo 8 mission. Apollo 8 orbited the Moon on Christmas Eve and into the morning of December 25th.
On Christmas Eve, the crew read the first 10 verses from Genesis 1 on TV for what was then the largest TV audience ever. They closed their broadcast with:
And from the crew of Apollo 8, we close with good ...
This NASA technical report seems to correspond to your focus:
Project management in the Apollo program: An interdisciplinary study
Drucker, Pooler, Wilemon, Wood.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 1972
Document ID: 19720025304
Findings concerning project management in the NASA Apollo program are
presented. The Apollo program in the context of the total NASA
There's a good reference to more specifics of the design in "Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight"
Basically, it's a huge 2 stage rocket constructed out of 8mm steel that wasn't expected to be as reliable as most rockets, but because of the simplicity in design and higher tolerances while being able to deliver much greater lift capacity ...
To my knowledge, Mercury Project used keyed CWI (Continuous Wave Interrupted) FM (frequency modulated) system, or FMCWI, capable of receiving Morse code over the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) and voice over HF (High Frequency) channels. This would be a completely analogue system, so we can't really speak of cryptographic algorithms. That doesn't mean comms were ...
What you want is the Satellite Catalog or "SATCAT" file. The original public source for this is the Satellite Situation Report (SSR) published daily on Space-Track (http://www.space-track.org - free registration required).
This file contains a record for every catalogued object which includes the launch date, launch site, object name, etc.
Here's a ...
The main difference between the two is that halo orbits tend to be much larger and are constricted to one plane. There's a NASA tech doc from 1993 comparing the station keeping costs between the two and finding none. The authors were quite clear that they did not know if this applied to all station keeping algorithms, but it was clear in the one they ...
There are two sources:
MOLA laser altimetry (http://tharsis.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapping_data.html) with the actual data available from MEGDR (Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records) at http://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/missions/mgs/megdr.html (the closest analog to SRTM you can get, but at a higher fidelity level).
and DTM (digital terrain models from stereo ...
Exact radiation patterns and gain (you're probably not asking about signal strength since that depends on distance which isn't constant) will vary across all the different GNSS contellations, even individual generations / blocks of same systems, but for a fairly detailed analysis of GPS blocks, you can refer to e.g. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring ...
Simply traveling the URL "upwards" you get this: https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/aam/cami/library/online_libraries/aerospace_medicine/tutorial/
It's an "online book", Advanced Aerospace Medicine On-line:
This on-line aerospace medicine reference was designed to provide a comprehensive information source for use by ...
I don't know how commonly rocket CGs are published.
You can estimate it reasonably well from published weights and dimensions by modeling engines, fuel tank, and oxidizer tank as cylinders of uniform density, and computing weighted averages of the centers of those cylinders. If you don't know what order the fuel and oxidizer tanks are stacked in, assume ...
Among others, the Wikipedia page cites this CNET article, which in turn links to a copy of the original KCNA statement; this is also linked from the WP page. It's now offline, but here is an archived copy. No image (possibly didn't archive) but the text confirms a) the name and b) the logo.
The National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA) is the ...
The good old Space Shuttle News Reference Manual should get you started. There is also good information in the Crew Operations Manual (section 2.22).
I know just linking is frowned on, but your question is so general that I'd just have to copy the entire sections and paste them in, which seems absurd.
From Wikipedia on New Horizons:
New Horizons is intended to pass within 10,000 km (6,200 mi) of Pluto,
with this closest approach date estimated to occur on July 14, 2015 at
11:50 UTC. New Horizons will have a relative velocity of 13.78 km/s
(49,600 km/h; 30,800 mph) at its closest approach, and will come as
close as 27,000 km (17,000 mi) to Charon, ...
Payload mass delivered to LEO 550 metric tons
Cost per payload kilogram $59/kg to $600/kg
Details here, here, and here.
Sea Dragon was designed by Robert Truax in 1962 to be a low-cost heavy lift launch vehicle. To reduce costs for launch pads and gantries, the vehicle was to ...
I asked Jim Carpenter, lead scientist for ESA on the Luna 27 lander project, about this. He said that although the plans and protocols for Aurora are still in place, it is currently on hold, outside of the Exomars program.
ESA announced the Heracles program a few weeks ago. The winners of that competition will present their plans at the Moon 2020-2030 ...
@AnthonyX has found a paper that fits your description, published in JBIS. The paper's citation is:
Kennedy, Andrew. (2006). Interstellar Travel - The Wait Calculation and the Incentive Trap of Progress. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. 59. 239-246.
and it can be read now at Researchgate.
The Abstract says:
This paper describes an ...
Chariots for Apollo NASA SP-4205 (1979) By Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr. (web version) (pdf version)
Moonport NASA SP-4204 (1978) By Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty (web version) (pdf version)
Personal Suggestion - It's always best to learn by getting your hands dirty and since you are a student, do make an effort to start a Student Satellite Project in your college if it does not already have one.
With that being said, having been a part of one such endeavor in my college, I can disseminate whatever exposure I have gotten so far. I was a member ...
Wikipedia page on List of artificial objects escaping from the Solar System is a direct answer to your question. Please see further links therein for trajectory, speed and other historical info of each of these objects:
Pioneer 10 – Launched in 1972, flew past Jupiter in 1973. Contact lost in January 2003 and is heading in the direction of ...
Edit: This answer was written before the question was clarified to specifically address launch costs, and as such does not fully answer the question.
There's a good price breakdown/analysis on SatMagazine for some generic numbers. However, it was written in 2009 so may be a little out of date.
You might also take a look at Clyde-Space, they have a lot of ...