17

Really what it means is "Category 3" certified, with an additional review of a self-destruct situation to prevent breaking the nuclear payload. Category 3 is also what is required to launch humans, and in fact the final milestone in the Commercial Crew is to rate the system Category 3. It is required for any kind of sensitive launch. Note that man rated ...


11

Geostationary slots are a rare resource and are assigned to countries by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) since they are mainly used for communications and broadcasting, and need deconfliction both in frequency allocation (to reduce interference - the main raison d'être of ITU-R as a division of the ITU) and in collision avoidance (tighter ...


10

Sorry for being a few weeks late to this, but hopefully I can shed some light on how to think about it. The ISRO launch of these satellites is legally problematic in several ways. First, and as already mentioned in the question itself as well as another answer, one key issue here is Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty. For purposes of this launch, a key ...


10

If such a thing happened, it would most likely have been during the approach and rendezvous of the LM ascent stage with the CM, as Conrad and Bean were returning from the lunar surface. The most challenging part of the mission would be behind them and there would be a little window of time where they could maneuver around on the RCS thrusters without any ...


9

Are you interested in the liability for damage and contamination or the ownership? Either way there are holes you could drive a bus through. Most importantly in what follows, please bear in mind that I am not a lawyer. However it is edifying to recall that barristers are in aggregate wrong 50% of the time by definition, as it is an adversarial role with a ...


9

For your specific example, the answer is cost. Nobody is going to spend hundreds of millions (or even just 1% of that) just to prank a community of astronomers. For other examples? What stops China or Russia from launching a set of rockets to destroy GPS satellites, or military communication satellites? Neither country wants to initiate World War III. ...


8

The satellites were launched on a vehicle operated by the indian government, with (at least implicit) permission of India. This is clearly not a violation of the Outer Space Treaty, it only means that India is now ultimately liable for damages caused by these satellites. If India didn't want to assume liability itself, it should have required the satellite ...


7

There is a standard clause included in all GPS receiver manuals regarding COCOM Limits. I cannot find the source of this clause, but since it is worded exactly the same in all the manuals I could find, I assumed it was probably derived directly from the regulation at some point: COCOM Limits The U.S. Department of Commerce requires that all ...


6

Vector flew their test at the Friends of Amateur Rocketry site, which has permits from the FAA to fly to 50,000 feet on weekends without obtaining additional permits per launch. For early tests of avionics and such, Vector can save time and money that way.


6

It seems the host country of the company requires a permit. This has been done by only one company that I'm aware of, Sea Launch. Sea Launch was licensed by the FCC, as it was managed by Boeing. If it's not a company, then it would be the host country. And quite frankly, if a person don't have citizenship of any country, then they seem unlikely to be in such ...


6

The European Space Agency (ESA) is subject to the Regulations of the European Space Agency. One of these documents is ESA/REG/008 - Rules on Information, Data and Intellectual Property, the goal of which is stated as follows: The Rules on Information, Data and Intellectual Property, as adopted by Council on 19 December 2001 under the reference ESA/C/CLV/...


6

The regulations and international guidelines for space debris were recently overhauled in 2018 after a long 20+ year lull. This is key to prevent any accidents in space as the number of low orbit launches increase exponentially. The FCC, European Space Agency and UN have all begun to lay out plans for the "mitigation of orbital debris in the new space age". ...


6

Why does the NOAA require a permit to be issued to stream images of the earth? It's not just streaming. It includes all mechanisms for taking images of the Earth from space and somehow having that imagery get back to Earth. Why do these regulations exist? One reason is the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. This treaty, to which the US is a party, deems that ...


5

I think the answer to this is basically no or at least not any harder than other 1U CubeSats. I base this answer on two lines of argument. Also your data above more or less proves what I am about to say. First, this quote from Swarm co-founder Sara Spangelo "All seven SpaceBEE satellites launched to date have been consistently tracked by both the Space ...


5

Here is what the NASA Software FAQ says: The release type determines who can have a NASA software code. If you meet the access criteria for the code (as defined below), NASA can transfer the software to you. Release types: General Public Release: For codes with a broad release and no nondisclosure or export control restrictions Open Source ...


5

The National and Commercial Space Programs Act (NCSPA) says: It is unlawful for any person who is subject to the jurisdiction or control of the United States, directly or through any subsidiary or affiliate to operate a private remote sensing space system without possession of a valid license issued under the Act and the regulations. You can find that ...


5

I found this document which seems to be a checklist of requirements for the CubeSat launch systems. Listed in section 2 seems to be all the documentation and compliance the CubeSat launch provider would have to supply/meet. I would assume that they would need similar documentation on each Cube also. Everyone mentions a NASA safety review, but details are ...


5

If you read ULA's "Aft Bulkhead Carrier Auxiliary Payload User's Guide" found here: "http://www.ulalaunch.com/Products_AtlasV.aspx" , you'll find details about the requirements for Auxiliary Payloads (AP). Primarily, it says the Auxiliary Payload Coordinator (APC) is responsible for making sure the CubeSat meets ULA's requirements for Atlas V launches. ...


5

ITAR regulations restrict the defense-related information you can share with non-U.S. persons. There is no distinction between the rules applicable to a government agency like NASA or private contractors like SpaceX, Lockheed Martin etc. Abiding by ITAR regulations is crucial for businesses in order to maintain a continual trust with their government ...


5

It stands for Temporary Flight Restriction. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporary_flight_restriction Presumably the TFR is in place for whatever SpaceX is doing and the radar will be utilized during that same event. So the two things are associated, but one is not because of the other.


4

To add to Deer Hunter's response: The ITU manages the radio spectrum that satellites use, not their physical location. There are many examples of satellites being owned by different organisations whose ITU permitted orbital slots are exactly co-incident but for use with different frequency bands. It is then up to the owners of the satellites to avoid ...


4

You can also check out the System Requirements documents for the QB50 project. You'll find system requirements and testing (qualification and acceptance) as well as requirements regarding quality control and reporting. The QB50 project will launch 50 double and triple cubesats to study the lower thermosphere.


3

From the Wikipedia list, the most recently launched nuclear reactor appears to be a TOPAZ-I on Kosmos 1867, launched by the USSR in 1987. It's parked in a 800km orbit at 65º inclination and appears to be falling apart. For Earth orbit applications, solar power mass efficiency (~100 W/kg) is much better than RTG (~2.8 W/kg) or reactors like TOPAZ-I (~15 W/...


3

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international ...


3

It seems this is at least partly handled at the country level, as Swarm, a US based company was recently fined by the US Federal Communications Commission for unauthorized orbits that apparently risked satellite collisions.


3

For US launchers, this answers your question. ESA has not developed RTGs, so there's less need to develop a certification process.


3

A TFR is a Temporary Flight Restriction. My best guess for why SpaceX would include this information in their filing is that the FCC requires that marine radar does not interfere with airplane operations, and what SpaceX is saying is that because of the fact that there are no airplane operations when the radar is transmitting, there is no further need to ...


2

You can also have a look at the European Cooperation on Space Standardization (ECSS) here. Plenty of documents are available describing what to test and how to do it. For instance if you navigate to "Standards (at the top)" -> "1.ECSS Architecture" -> "_2. PA branch", you'll see a list of all kind of material testing that should be made prior to launch. You ...


2

EDIT: here is the most recent document as of Jan 2017: http://mtcr.info/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/MTCR-TEM-Technical_Annex_2016-10-20.pdf If the link fails, then go here: http://mtcr.info/mtcr-annex/ and look for the most recent version. The MTCR has recently been updated (OCT 2015). The new limit is 600 m/sec. CATEGORY II - ITEM 11 ...


2

I don't have a great answer to this, because each mission is rather unique, and the response always seems to be "it depends". You'll likely need to get a frequency allocation from the FCC for your radio transmissions. Now I know there may be ways to get around this if you're low enough power or have a relatively common bandwidth/frequency, regardless it's ...


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