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4

RD-107 seems to have been used in the R7 missile. It says in the article for the missile that 1st stage: 4x jettisonable four-chamber RD-107 booster engines each with 2x vernier rocket engines plus 1x four-chamber RD-108 core engine with 4x vernier rocket engines. So the RD 107 stage was used in quadruplets. So vernier engines existed on diametrically ...


3

I like the accepted answer, but it is a little abstract and I want to add to it with some visuals and more representative numbers. I created a crude launch sim and tracked the drag, gravity, and steering losses (for a sea level launch): Edit: original version of this graph (and table) has some bad math on the steering losses, this has been fixed. This shows ...


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It's easy. All you need are: a PhD in orbital mechanics the physique of an Olympic athlete a distinguished career as a test pilot a fluent command of Russian a great deal of luck Let us know how it goes! Edited to add: Galvanised by uhoh's comments, I actually googled this ("NASA astronaut requirements"). The official list is not entirely ...


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Since this question was posted, plenty of exhaust plumes have been filmed from the ground giving a nice impression of the long term expansion behavior. So, no, I wouldn't call it bulb shaped, but yes, the exhaust expands in ...


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