56

By design that will never happen. There are always enough return seats for the crew. This is exactly why the whole crew of one of the visiting vehicles gets in it whenever it undocks, even when it is only being moved from one docking port of the station to another the crews retreat to their vehicles in fire / leak / toxic atmosphere emergencies the crews ...


32

Found a couple of good photos of at least three of the vehicles side by side. CST-100 - Orion - Dragon Graphic of Apollo - Orion - CST-100 - Dragon A great picture from User3, who found it on reddit, showing the various vehicles all side by side to scale. Another good one, doing a better job of showing manned vs reentry vs service modules parts. Great ...


27

What would happen if there was a freak accident in which that the ISS needed to be evacuated and there was ONLY one space craft available? Carrying that to an even greater extreme, what would happen if there was a freak accident in which the ISS needed to be evacuated and no space craft was available? For example, suppose two human-qualified vehicles are ...


21

As of 24 April 2020, the Russians & Chinese are the only ones capable of sending people into orbit. The Chinese crewed space program is still in its early stages & only sends Chinese people into space. People from other countries would like to go to space & the International Space Station is funded by a number of countries, including Russia. The ...


20

No. Sputnik 1 reentered on Jan 4, 1958, a few months after launch. The batteries died and it stopped beeping about three weeks after launch.


13

Here's one more comparison of relative sizes of manned vehicles. http://i.imgur.com/YvVuyn7.jpg


10

For the time being, no. That of course doesn't mean they can't be joint (docked or berthed, depending on the purpose of the port) by using various, mostly semi-permanent adapters, like e.g. Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) or International Docking Adapter (IDA) that are planned to be used first in 2014-2015, converting APAS-95 docking interface to the NASA ...


8

This is somewhat adding on to @geoffc's answer The ISS is a joint project between NASA, Roscosmos, and other agencies. As geoffc mentioned, both NASA and Roscosmos want to always have at least one Russian cosmonaut and one Astronaut from the US on board at all times. The problem with the space shuttle was that it could only stay docked to the ISS for 12 ...


8

As @Antzi said in his now-deleted answer, initially ExoMars was to be a collaboration between ESA and NASA, with NASA providing the launches. When NASA left the program, ESA sought a new deal, this time with Roscosmos. As of 2009, in April 2018, NASA's Atlas rocket would launch the European Space Agency's long-delayed ExoMars rover and a smaller NASA rover (...


7

Baikonur is definitely less favorable launch site than Guiana, with highly inclined orbits, but that doesn't play such a big role with interplanetary missions as inclination correction on very high orbits is relatively inexpensive. But first, there are simple, direct budget concerns: ExoMars doesn't require the large payload capacity of Arianne (and it's ...


7

Almaz was the military version of the Salyut. At that time while military meant reconnaissance "only"; Salyut 2, 3 and 5 are referred to as Almaz. Some sources say that the Almaz editions were equipped with guns while the civil editions of Salyut were not. It is safe to assume that with the ISS being a rather civil and international cooperation, its ...


6

The Soyuz vehicle requires a custom seat liner to be make the impact of landing safer. Soyuz capsules return to Earth via a parachute to a land based landing, uses solid rockets that fire in the last few seconds to dump the last of the velocity. This is not the most comfortable of all possible landing methodologies and the custom seat liners are designed ...


6

Not so much diagrams exist, but I found old one (with annotations in Russian): https://cont.ws/uploads/pic/2017/12/2014-mks_07.jpg from this page. I am not sure is it official data from manufacturer or work by space fans... Translation of the annotations (beginnig from the right, clockwise): Переходная камера - transition chamber Переходной люк - ...


5

«Если что-то в ракете перестает работать, подается команда АВД — «аварийное выключение двигателей». Это пошло еще со времен боевых ракет, чтобы в случае отказа ракета упала на нашей территории. Двигатели выключаются, ракета падает в атмосфере и, как правило, сгорает», — поясняет редактор журнала «Новости космонавтики» Игорь Афанасьев. Поскольку ракета стоит ...


5

They needed the money. Sometimes it seemed the Russian space program would do almost anything to raise money..... (the book goes on to describe renting out the TsUP's lobby to a Czech lighting-fixture company, flying a Japanese journalist to Mir for cash, charging fees for interviews with program management, etc) The Russians were especially adept ...


5

According to this source (in Russian), out of seven successful Salyut stations (amongst which were the three military Almaz stations) the modified NR-23 cannon was installed only on Salyut-3 (aka Almaz-2): The only prototype of such an installation was mounted at the Almaz-2 station, also known as Salyut-3. The above statement indirectly assumes that MIR ...


5

There WAS a different concept for returning folks from orbit in emergencies that was considered, called MOOSE, but it never got out of the planning stages.


4

Shuttle astronauts often wore sunglasses after exiting the Orbiter / post-landing convoy vehicles. Image Source NASA Image Source NASA Don't overthink this. They wore sunglasses because the light was bright, and used blankets because they were cold.


4

Most likely the countries will eventually cooperate when it comes to Mars, after the Mars race. Plans to go to Mars. The details of when and where are not clear. China wants to go to Mars by the end of 2020. Whilst Obama stated that the United States will go to Mars in the 2030s. As for private companies, SpaceX wants to go there and are making the most ...


4

Eccentricity has very little to do with launch windows in general, and the International Space Station's specifically. The ISS's orbit is very close to circular, with an eccentricity of 0.003 or less. There are many factors that determine whether or not a launch window is instantaneous. A non-instantaneous launch window requires that the launch vehicle be ...


3

There are probably several reasons and it is a mix of them all. At some levels your question is somewhat specific on why they do indirect handoffs, where one crew of three remains, one crew of three departs, and then later one crew of three joins the station. On Mir with only a single active crew (for the most part) they would do direct handoffs, where ...


3

The Sokol suit is designed to be worn inside the Soyuz capsule. The suit is made from two layers only, the inner layer of a rubberized fabric and the outer layer made from Nylon are not suitable to keep the cosmonaut warm after landing outside the capsule. In case of an emergency decompression of the Soyuz capsule the cosmonauts would overheat in the vacuum ...


2

According to Anatloy Zak's website, with the cancellation of Rus-M it will be the Angara family, with first to fly in March 2014, which is of course, to be taken with a grain of salt. This is after all, rocket science. From: Angara at Vostochny On Oct. 23, 2013, Roskosmos announced a tender for the development of the launch complex 371SK32 for the Angara ...


2

This IP-1 site at Baikonur cosmodrome https://kik-sssr.ru/IP_1_Turatam_Foto.htm A few examples of other views of the antenna arrays in the question from there:


2

The quad parabola is in the "radio-engineering center" (loose translation) here You can't see it well in that Google image, but it shows up clearly in this image of the same area from Apple Maps: The two trapezoidal antennae are to the south east. Again, hard to see on Google, but visible on the Apple version (which can be zoomed form this). Looking at ...


2

I doubt there's an explicit procedure to follow in this case, but such a crew member would doubtless be physically forced to return. Any crew member who would refuse to return would be untrustworthy and an obvious danger to the other crew members. Leaving that person on the ISS would be far too dangerous. The seats on spacecraft going up and down to and ...


2

This is done to make the astronauts more comfortable, of course. Sunglasses: the astronauts haven't been outside for weeks/months, and with the clear sky it looks to be quite bright out there. And it looks like they're facing the Sun. I'd want to wear sunglasses in those circumstances. Blankets: they've landed in Kazakhstan, in a region that can get ...


2

https://ria.ru/20180711/1524344892.html July 11, 2018 RIA News. The Roscosmos offensive corporation changed its logo, abandoning the version introduced by Igor Komarov and returning to the image used by the Federal Space Agency. Previously, the Roscosmos logo was a red arrow, girdled with an image of an orbit. This image was inscribed in a white ...


2

This chart shows the launch windows for shuttle mission STS-127 (a mission to the ISS) for a one-week period. You can see the windows were 10 minutes long, not instantaneous. There was at least a flight day (FD) 4 rendezvous opportunity every day and most days had a FD 3 opportunity. The chart is a bit confusing because the Y axis is OMS 2 Phase Angle but ...


2

I've never seen serious discussion of Russia becoming an ESA member state. It's fairly unlikely to happen as Russia would see this as a degradation. There is extensive cooperation between ESA and Russia on various programs: Soyuz rockets are launched from the ESA launch base at Kourou some ESA scientific missions carry Russian instruments, and vice versa ...


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