46

It did, with the third rocket stage. Instead of just becoming another object in solar orbit like the previous Apollo third stages, this time the third stage was sent into the Moon for a crash landing whose impact would be recorded on the seismometer installed by Apollo 12. This test went off without a hitch and successfully returned data from the ...


30

In addition to crashing the Saturn V's S-IVB into the moon to collect seismic data from sensors installed by the crews of Apollo 11 and 12, several life sciences experiments were performed on the crew before and after Apollo 13. While all of the inflight experiments were canceled, researchers still managed to collect data on the cardiovascular's response to ...


17

This may answer some of your questions, but not all. Additional information may exist in the book. Also take into account that both Voyager spacecrafts could perform the same measurements before they diverged. The results could be compared. Following excerpts are from the book Deep Space Craft: An Overview of Interplanetary Flight, Dave Doody, Springer ...


11

There are currently (June 2018) two new papers (links may be paywalled): "Organic matter preserved in 3-billion-year-old mudstones at Gale crater, Mars", Eigenbrode et al., Science 360, 1096–1101 (2018) "Background levels of methane in Mars’ atmosphere show strong seasonal variations", Webster et al., Science 360, 1093–1096 (2018) The first is looking for ...


10

For integration into software, I would recommend the SPICE toolkit, available with interfaces for C, Fortran, IDL, and MATLAB, and the many SPK kernels that can be loaded into SPICE containing the most accurate ephemerides available for the planets and their satellites. For specific small bodies you can use the HORIZONS system to generate SPK kernels, or you ...


10

Two items of note: Luna 9's initially released pictures came from scientists at Jodrell Bank Observatory in England, which could be received because they were in a standard format. This came ahead of the official release of the first photographs from the surface of the Moon. Apollo 11 signals were received and decoded by Amateur Radio operators. Many ...


10

note: Here are two examples of "hijacked signals" that include "public release of the images or data that included the admission that it is 'stolen' or 'hijacked'." I am sure there are a few more. One is backyard audio and the other is intercepted video! From Lunar Eavesdropping in Louisville, Kentucky by C. Graney, Jefferson Community & Technical ...


10

The degree of orbital shadowing experienced by an orbiting object with small orbital altitude is determined by its beta angle (normally used in reference to LEO objects but the concept applies to lunar orbiters as well). The angle is taken between the satellite's orbital plane and the vector to the Sun. Depending on the value of the beta angle, a satellite ...


10

This user guide seems to be reasonably recent (2017) and answers your question. The solid state recorder (SSR) onboard JWST can hold at least 58.8 Gbytes of recorded science data. JWST downlinks science data in two 4-hr contacts per day; each contact can transmit at least 28.6 Gbytes of recorded science data to the ground. So it can hold about 1 ...


9

Once in orbit, always in orbit doesn't apply to the moon--the gravity is too uneven. Stuff left in lunar orbit generally crashes into the moon after a while. (All the Apollo landers that were left in lunar orbit are gone by now.) In addition to observing the crash they also wanted to control the crash--make sure it didn't happen on top of anything sitting ...


8

LADEE was going to run out of fuel, and they wanted - and succeeded - to collect data of Moon's atmosphere and levitated dust. (LADEE means 'Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer'.) Fuel is needed to compensate orbital degradation due to Moon's non-symmetric gravitational field. Online communication was possible due to superfast laser data ...


8

Addressing multipath has long been a challenge with regard to GPS. Carrying a GPS-enabled smartphone toward the heart of a large city results in GPS-estimated positions and altitudes that bounce around. The problem is signals reflecting off of buildings, sometimes multiple times. Those reflecting surfaces result in multiple paths that a GPS signal can follow ...


8

The "Flight Evaluation Reports" from the Apollo missions have a number of data plots and tables that may help you. Bob Braeunig developed a simulation that matched the Apollo 11 flight report rather well, which you may want to refer to; unfortunately he seems to have taken it down but it's available on archive.org. You can probably find similar data for ...


8

The slope is over 50 degrees at some point. I made a quick pseudocolor rendering of the slope with QGIS using the global DEM from LRO LOLA. The slope was generated from the DEM using QGIS's slope tool, after having cropped the global DEM. Some artifacts (the vertical bands) can be seen though. Also, Regional tiles from SLDEM2015 can be useful to not have ...


7

The source of the data is the Radiation Environment Monitor. Lawrence S. Pinsky is listed as co-investigator. This Radiation Environment Monitor demonstration will provide information that is required to enable the design of an operational active personal space radiation dosimeter. The objectives of the experiment are to demonstrate the viability of this ...


7

Section 4.1 on page 8 of the original report on the phenomenon discards this possibility, albeit indirectly: The Kepler light curve for KIC 8462852 is unique, and we have thoroughly explored the raw data for defects/instrumental effects, which could cause the observed variations in KIC 8462852’s flux. We use the P Y K E software tools for Kepler data ...


7

Kepler rolled between the quarter dates found at this site. At first glance, they don't seem to correlate, although I need to do more work to actually line it up. As Kepler rolls the data between data releases, it's possible to look at whole datasets, and see if they occur at a common point in the cycle. I can tell you the following: A dip occurred at the ...


7

There is no circular orbit that has a share of 50:50 between night and day. The possible times are a bit less than 50% to 0% night or, respectively, a bit more than 50% day to 100% day. The two extreme cases are: an orbit that is aligned with the terminator (the border between night and day on the surface) is in perpetual daylight. an orbit that passes ...


6

Use this page to generate SPICE kernels for the bodies of interest, and then use SPICE routines to calculate whatever you like to your heart's content. Aarrr. I don't be knowin why ye be reinventing th' wheel. Alrighty ya scurvy bilge rat, here it be: $$x=a\left(\cos\tau-e\right)$$ $$y=a\sqrt{1-e^2}\sin\tau$$ $$z=0$$ That be givin it t' ye in th' plane. ...


6

OSIRIS-REx is packed all full of good stuff. I'll throw together a quick list of the scanning ones you're interested in. Also of note is that the entire spacecraft will be making that scanning motion shown in the gif, so as the asteroid rotates, all of these instruments will be able to have full coverage of it. OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer ...


6

A quick search on Google Scholar turns up 106 articles published in 2018 using Huygens' data. So I'd say the data is still being analyzed and used.


6

Short version: you have to read the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBD), conveniently collected at https://clasp-research.engin.umich.edu/missions/cygnss/data-products.php . All of them. They are too long (143 pages in total, by my count) to do them justice here, but I will try to give you a whirlwind tour. At the most basic, the satellite ...


6

Signals are not repeated, but instead coded in a special way that allows to reconstruct the original data on the receiver side in presence of noise/errors. It is called forward error correction. FEC schemes are more efficient than just blindly transmitting the same data twice (though they of course increase the total amount of data that has to be ...


6

All the data from the NEAR Shoemaker mission is archived at the Small Body Node of the NASA Planetary Data System. Asteroid surface properties (the regolith) is normally measured using images or spectra in the mid/thermal-infrared to determine the thermal inertia. This can vary considerably depending on whether the surface is made from coarse boulders to ...


5

The CYGNSS spacecraft will use a technique called "Delay Doppler Mapping". Each satellite will be equipped with a Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI), which is capable of receiving four DDM's at once. DDM is only slightly different from standard Radar Altimetry, which measures the distance to an object by tracking how long it takes a signal bounced off ...


5

Never. The goal of PubSpace as stated by NASA themselves: NASA is using PubMed Central (PMC) to permanently preserve and provide easy public access to the peer-reviewed papers resulting from NASA-funded research. Beginning with research funded in 2016, all NASA-funded authors and co-authors (both civil servant and non-civil servant) will be required to ...


5

NASA requires all missions to release the raw data on a regular basis, in particular to the Planetary Data System. ESA releases their data to the Planetary Science Archive. Russia releases it's data to the Solar System Data Archive. Other organizations are found under the umbrella "International Planetary Data Alliance", which has a whitepaper here giving ...


5

Tracking Apollo-17 from Florida http://www.svengrahn.pp.se/trackind/Apollo17/APOLLO17.htm On December 10, 1972 we picked up our first signals on S-band. The main carrier was 45 dB over noise and the voice subcarrier was 25 dB over noise. Apollo 17 passed. over the lunar disc between 1722 and 1819.10 local time (2222-2319 UT), and during these 57 minutes we ...


5

It all depends on how you define "dayside" and "nightside", and how you define "entering" or "exiting" either one of them for a satellite. I suppose a big part of the confusion comes from this statement: Being in a polar orbit, Chandrayaan-2 enters the dayside of the Moon crossing the north pole, traverses through the dayside and enters the nightside ...


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