10

I think we can all agree that the crux of this question is in the New Shepard specifications, feel free to offer improvements to these. Here are the ones I arrived at (note: there is no recovery of the booster in this analysis): Booster Masses: This reddit thread (that is now 5 yrs old) contains some estimates of tank volume and empty booster mass and I ...


9

In the early days of ISS, when they were building it with the shuttle, there was a soccer ball sized robot camera called AER Cam Sprint. NASA, public domain. Astronaut for scale They tested it successfully out of the shuttle bay. It had stereo cameras, a light, and cold nitrogen thrusters. It was not autonomous, but was controlled by an astronaut inside. ...


8

Addressing multipath has long been a challenge with regard to GPS. Carrying a GPS-enabled smartphone toward the heart of a large city results in GPS-estimated positions and altitudes that bounce around. The problem is signals reflecting off of buildings, sometimes multiple times. Those reflecting surfaces result in multiple paths that a GPS signal can follow ...


6

Short version: you have to read the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBD), conveniently collected at https://clasp-research.engin.umich.edu/missions/cygnss/data-products.php . All of them. They are too long (143 pages in total, by my count) to do them justice here, but I will try to give you a whirlwind tour. At the most basic, the satellite ...


5

The CYGNSS spacecraft will use a technique called "Delay Doppler Mapping". Each satellite will be equipped with a Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI), which is capable of receiving four DDM's at once. DDM is only slightly different from standard Radar Altimetry, which measures the distance to an object by tracking how long it takes a signal bounced off ...


4

Both spacecraft appear to be utilizing an ESPA ring, which stands for EELV Secondary Payload Adapter. ESPA class missions "hitchhike" on the interstage of a larger launch. This is useful when e.g. a telecom company needs to buy a launch to the GEO belt (which traditionally requires a larger launch vehicle), but don't need all of the rocket's capability. ...


3

The cases you've mentioned are applied to three-axis attitude control systems. In the past (and oddly even today), magnetic torquers were used to replenish the angular momentum of spin-stabilized spacecraft. The simplest example that comes to mind is SCD 1 and 2: The ACS is responsible to stabilize and control the spacecraft orientation with respect to ...


3

Because the other answers seem to be having trouble finding cubesats: the MarCO cubesats apparently downlinked to 70m DSN dishes. MarCO A and B were 6U cubesats that acted as comm relays for the Mars Insight lander during entry, descent, and landing. The Iris v2 radio, developed by NASA JPL, consists of five stacked modules with external Solid-State Power ...


2

This is explained in the mission Science Briefing. Basically, they are measuring the distortion of the GPS signal reflected by the water surface. On a calm flat surface, the reflection is specular, I.e undistorted. The more rough the surface is, the more the reflection becomes diffuse. You can observe the same effect if you observe the reflection of e.g. ...


2

Based on the postulate that a cubesat is a low-power transmitter without a directional antenna, then the most suitable example would be a Soviet balloon in the atmosphere of Venus. Its transmitter had a power of 4.5 watts. The signal was received by the American and Soviet Deep Space Network and a number of other radiotelescopes in several ...


2

Based on some research, I could not find a cubesat that has communicated with the Deep Space Network yet. However, there are two interesting findings: The Lunar IceCube Cubesat, planned to launch on Artemis-1 on 2021, will validate the use of the Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) for the first time on a cubesat in deep space. For that purpose, the Morehead State ...


2

M-Cubed is (was?) a cubesat build at the University of Michigan that sort-of qualifies: The satellite uses a small permanent magnet and orthogonal mu-metal dampening strips as passive attitude control to slowly orient its Z axis to the Earth's polar magnetic field lines. (It carries no other orienting hardware) Why just "sort-of"? The Michigan ...


1

On June 2, 2021, the Taipei Times reported that the National Central University (NCU) was partnering with HelioX and other local businesses to develop a scientific payload to be part of an international mission to the moon in 2023. HelioX Cosmos, a space services supplier, is the official representative of Japanese firm Space BD, a designated service ...


1

The ELFIN cubesats use magnetotorquers for attitude control.


1

Humanity Star According to Wikipedia: Humanity Star was a passive satellite designed to produce flares visible from Earth. Its shape was a geodesic sphere about 1 metre (3 ft) in diameter, similar to a large disco ball. It was launched into polar orbit on an Electron rocket by Rocket Lab in January 2018 and reentered the atmosphere on 22 March ...


1

CYGNSS uses Delay Doppler Reflectometry to record ocean choppyness. What this means is, essentially, the satellites listen to GPS signals bounce off the ocean surface and look at how much the signal is scattered and delayed. The data is published at different levels, and the algorithms between the levels aren't necessarily public. However, the level 0 data ...


1

I am not sure what you mean by "ocean roughness", but the CYGNSS products are wind speed and Mean Square Slope (MSS). You can read the retrieval algorithms here (pag 47) and here (page 5) respectively.


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