35

We can look at what happened when this actually occurred. The geomagnetic storm of March 1989 was caused by a Coronal Mass Ejection. Here are just a few of the many effects on satellites. One satellite lost 3 miles in altitude (not 30 km! don't believe that legend). Another began uncontrolled tumbling. GOES 7 lost communications and imagery for a time. ...


30

I spent a couple of years working in the Astrophysics and Space Physics Section of JPL. Working with the Space Physics folks taught me a lot about the solar wind and other space weather phenomena. Later on, working with Hank Garrett of JPL's Space Environments group taught me more, especially concerning effects on spacecraft. I'll start out with a ...


12

Density of the proton wind coming from the Sun is few ten particles per cubic centimeter (atmospheric density is orders of magnitude higher in LEO), thus not influencing a satellite by drag. Actually, the proton flow could also add tiny amounts of speed to the satellite when hitting it from the back. The solar storm is accompanied by a tiny magnetic field (...


9

Inside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which includes all spacecraft in orbit (pedantically, all satellites), a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) can not directly hit a spacecraft. The charged particles are captured by Earth's magnetic field. However, solar flares and CMEs do still have measurable impacts on our spacecrafts, which is why in the US the National ...


8

It is an indirect effect; increased solar activity affects the Earth's atmosphere in such a way to cause a net density increase at a given orbital height. This increases the drag on objects in LEO. See the entry section of this article.


5

Coronal Mass Ejection is a large ejection of mass from the sun. These ejections are so large that they increase the particle density of the solar wind and can be very dangerous to spacecraft. The size of a CME can be much larger than the sun itself. Solar flare are like CMEs except smaller, more localized, and unlikely to eject enough mass to do harm. ...


5

This response addresses the last part of the question: "what is the proportion between "propulsive power" between the two accelerating factors of solar sail?" Solar Wind is between 1-6x10-9 N/m2 "The wind exerts a pressure at 1 AU typically in the range of 1–6 nPa (1–6×10−9 N/m2), although it can readily vary outside that range." Solar Radiation ...


4

Most shielding is just mass plus atomic number - for cosmic Ray shielding you want light elements, as heavy elements make more radiation. Water and polyethylene are good options. The main interesting thing is how to make the shielding do double duty. Options include: supplies thermal protection systems fuel/propellant water supplies boxes of food sewage ...


2

The two are not the same, though they can be caused by similar phenomena. As the Wikipedia article you cite mentions, a coronal mass ejection is an unusual release of plasma. That plasma is released into the solar wind. What makes a solar particle event different is that the plasma, once released, is then accelerated to greater speed/energy. The particles ...


1

Immediate events Start was scheduled for June 11th. But on this day, "Vostok-5" did not go into space. The prognosis came: powerful solar flares are expected, at which the radiation dose may exceed the dangerous X-ray threshold. The start was appointed both on June 12 and June 13, but the specialists of the Sun Service did not give the go-ahead. Finally, ...


1

Two scientists, Brooks L. Harrop and Dirk Schulze-Makuch, have hypothesized that a solar wind satellite built with the right proportions can generate an upwards of 1 billion billion gigawatts of energy(see pt. 5 below). The satellite's main components consist of a copper wire, receiver, and a sail. The satellite's charged copper wire, aimed at the sun, would ...


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