technically it was fiberglass with acrylic fibers - "стеклонитрон"("glass-nitron").
It was necessary to get down through the hot atmosphere quickly, but not hit the surface too hard. To accomplish this, the main parachute was reefed, a cord wrapped around the parachute cables held the mouth of the chute closed like a goblet, and the ...
There are some very different concerns here, but I think I can address a couple of them:
First, why was it necessary for the Russians to land at local Noon on those days?
Noon is the time of day were the least amount of atmosphere is blocking the Sun. One of the findings of Venera 8, which did not land at noon, was that there is sufficient light on the ...
RD-107 seems to have been used in the R7 missile. It says in the article for the missile that
1st stage: 4x jettisonable four-chamber RD-107 booster engines each with 2x vernier rocket engines plus 1x four-chamber RD-108 core engine with 4x vernier rocket engines.
So the RD 107 stage was used in quadruplets. So vernier engines existed on diametrically ...
#22 - explosive bolt for opening the top cover
As you can see in the diagram, the explosive bolt (#22) is in a comfortable environment inside the capsule, protected by thermal insulation (#11).
Any spacecraft on upper stages of the launch vehicle is thermally stabilized under the fairing.
When the spacecraft is at the cosmodrome, the thermal regime is usually provided with the help of ground-based means.
In this photo, you can see two ducts from the fairing to the air conditioner.
Air supply to the lower part of the head unit by means of mobile ...