69

A few interesting videos about the lunokhod rovers: Tank on the Moon The Lunokhod Rovers - It Happened in Space #7 Secret Soviet Lunar Rovers and Extra Terrestrial Cars - Lunokhod, Mars Rovers The chief designer of the lunokhods (Lunokhod 1 & 2) was Aleksandr Kemurdzhian, a tank designer. Being a tank designer his initial designs had the lunokhod use ...


56

Gagarin learned about the problems with the hatch when the hatch was reopened. From Roscosmos: В 7.30 С.П. Королев поинтересовался о самочувствии у Ю.А. Гагарина. Казалось, что все идет согласно графику подготовки второго дня, но вдруг, когда до пуска оставалось несколько десятков минут, случилось непредвиденное. Слессари-монтажники Н.И. Селезнев, В.И. ...


41

Initially, the USSR insisted that Gagarin had landed with the spacecraft, because of requirements for FAI certification of spaceflight records: One of the stipulations for spaceflight requires that the pilot should land inside their craft in order for the record to be valid. This requirement was created to prevent pilots from flying crafts that could not be ...


18

I believe that's the Sofora girder which was made up of 20 segments totalling 14 metres in length. There was an RCS thruster at the top end which made it easier to orient the station and used less propellant. It was assembled by Anatoli Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev during four EVAs in July 1991 and the thruster pack installed by Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli ...


16

Wikipedia's List Of Cosmonauts page has a handy breakdown for "Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia". According to that page: All Soviet and RKA cosmonauts have been born within the borders of the U.S.S.R.; no cosmonaut who was born in independent Russia has yet flown. Many cosmonauts, however, were born in Soviet territories outside ...


14

Answer: Yes. Volga training simulator. Almaz space station (either training mock up or real) The pictures indicate he was inside Volga (Soyuz) and Almaz (Salyut-2). June 1972. Fidel Castro visited the Soviet Union as part of a whirlwind tour in 1972. The simulator was used for practicing changing out optical elements used in procedures like docking. Fidel ...


13

Updated answer: Mayak (Lighthouse/beacon) or URS truss, mounted on Salyut-7 in May 1986. Unfortunately, it is not the Sofora Arm, but the predecessor to it. From EVA's carried out from May 28 1986 to May 31 1986, Cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov installed the URS (also known as Mayak) truss on the front compartment of the station, after ...


13

This article sheds light on some details. There was an air defense base nearby. They raised the alarm before Gagarin landed. An officer announced "We are working on space now!" which made everyone excited. Then they started to watch the skies. First they saw the Vostok spacecraft, then the catapult chair descending on its own parachute. The third ...


11

I would note that only two USSR-born cosmonauts had flown to space not as citizens of Russia/USSR: Leonid Kadeniuk, citizen of Ukraine. Flew on the Space Shuttle for the STS-87 mission in 1997. Aidyn Aimbetov, citizen of Kazakhstan. Flew on Soyuz TMA-18M in 2015 to the ISS and returned to Earth with Soyuz TMA-16) after nine days.


9

Looks like the first Soviet satellite with solar power capability was Sputnik 3, launched on the 15th May 1958, losing out to Vanguard 1 which was the first satellite with solar power launched only two months earlier. Of Sputnik 3, Wikipedia says It was powered by silver-zinc batteries and silicon solar cells which operated for approximately 6 weeks From ...


9

Descriptions for Salyut 1 through to Salyut 7 describe 20 portholes. At least 2 were on the transfer compartment (for Mir, at least 7 between Salyut 3-6). The rest seemed distributed in the floors and ceilings, usually either covered with a door or were for instruments. 7 differed in having 2 port holes for UV radiation, extra large window for astronomy, 2 ...


9

The inner hall can be seen, for example, here. https://anthrax-urbex.livejournal.com/36886.html https://bu33er.livejournal.com/247978.html


9

Would the Lunniy Korabl be possibly able to dock to the Oryol spacecraft Oryol isn't currently designed to dock with an LK, but I don't think there's a fundamental reason it couldn't be modified to do so; the docking system is basically just a probe that plugs into one of a large grid of holes on the LK. There's no pressurized connection and little need for ...


8

technically it was fiberglass with acrylic fibers - "стеклонитрон"("glass-nitron"). It was necessary to get down through the hot atmosphere quickly, but not hit the surface too hard. To accomplish this, the main parachute was reefed, a cord wrapped around the parachute cables held the mouth of the chute closed like a goblet, and the ...


7

For your first question, it was definitely not the first teletype printer: The airlock module had other functions, too. In it were located the controls for the temperature of the Skylab and the purification system of its air. In addition to the space station's electrical control and hazard warning systems, the module also had a Teletype printer, like that ...


6

The second image is nonsense, most likely someone not familiar with what they were putting together for the display. My question is, which one is actual representation of the docking orientation? First one is correct, latter is rubbish. and is skewed orientation really better? skewed prevents the docking system from working. and Why? IGLA, basically. ...


6

There are some very different concerns here, but I think I can address a couple of them: First, why was it necessary for the Russians to land at local Noon on those days? Noon is the time of day were the least amount of atmosphere is blocking the Sun. One of the findings of Venera 8, which did not land at noon, was that there is sufficient light on the ...


6

В полете Ю. А. Гагарин пообедал. Из контейнера питания он достал щавелевое пюре с мясом, мясной паштет и шоколадный соус. После еды с помощью мундштука попил консервированной воды. Акт глотания не нарушался, и был сделан важный вывод о том, что в условиях космического полета можно принимать пищу и пить воду. Следует сказать, что большинство космонавтов с ...


6

With the difficulties of driving Lunokhod 1, Lunokhod 2 had improvements: the camera used for driving was mounted higher, to give a better field of view and the camera frame rate was 3 seconds compared to 20 seconds for Lunokhod 1. Lunokhod 2 carried an additional TV camera, mounted higher to make driving easier for terrestrial controllers. ...


6

UPDATE 2: Confirmed that (unencrypted) teletype existed on Salyut 2, from one of the programmers on the teams, with an amusing note on where they got the magnetic tape from: On board the Salyut-2 and the Salyut-3 stations, the Salyut-2M computers were installed. It had a tape drive... Magnetic tape for this drive was taken from American balloons. The ...


6

Чтобы работать по спутникам, то есть направлять зеркало антенны в ту или иную точку пространства на небе, особенно по «бегущим» (движущимся по орбите), нужна была следующая система: на «Орбиту» передавали координаты спутника во времени, со сдвигом через каждые 0,7°. Было известно время между двумя точками и местонахождение спутника — угол места, азимут. To ...


5

The Lunokhod crew lived and worked according to the schedule that was determined by the visibility of the Moon from the Crimea. One of the drivers, V. Dovgan, wrote a detailed memoir about how it was. According to the memoirs of V. Dovgan, they played volleyball after work. After the first intense communication with the lunar rover, they took a bus and went ...


4

RD-107 seems to have been used in the R7 missile. It says in the article for the missile that 1st stage: 4x jettisonable four-chamber RD-107 booster engines each with 2x vernier rocket engines plus 1x four-chamber RD-108 core engine with 4x vernier rocket engines. So the RD 107 stage was used in quadruplets. So vernier engines existed on diametrically ...


4

First of all, in Russia, the term 'spacesuit' (скафандр) can be a little ambiguous as it refers not only to space suits, but to generally any suit that isolates a human from the environment and provides a living environment within. Going by that characteristic, the first closed- loop suits were developed very early on in the 1930s. These models (СК–ЦАГИ and ...


3

#22 - explosive bolt for opening the top cover As you can see in the diagram, the explosive bolt (#22) is in a comfortable environment inside the capsule, protected by thermal insulation (#11). https://epizodyspace.ru/01/2u/solnthe/ams/v-8/v-8.html


3

Gagarin's Vostok 1 mission was entirely controlled by automatic systems or by ground control. In an emergency, Gagarin could have had manual control by entering a code, but he never did. It appears the initiation of decent of Vostok 1 was done automatically, 07:25 UTC The spacecraft's automatic systems bring it into the required attitude (orientation) for ...


3

Landing at night is a side effect of limited time and place options. Возможности ракеты–носителя «Протон–К» позволяли доставить на поверхность Луны возвратную ракету массой не более 5 кг — этого было явно недостаточно для обеспечения перелета Луна–Земля, учитывая необходимость проведения коррекций траектории. В этой критической ситуации было найдено ...


3

Watch this is an old movie. At 2:05 - "To maintain this position in the passive part of the trajectory, its powder engines twist around the axis of the descent vehicle." 2:34 - "As soon as the gauge of overloads will inform on a meeting with atmosphere of Mars, powder engines stop lander rotation." 3:16 - "...the engine to steer the ...


3

The "conical aerodynamic braking shield" was an aeroshell. The "gunpowder rockets" were small solid rockets. A set fired first to spin the vehicle up for stabilization during entry (hence the "control pitch and yaw"), and then another set fired to despin it. Reference and image: Soviet Robots in the Solar System, Huntress and ...


3

The development of ballistic missiles launched from under water anywhere in the world ocean and equipped with on-board computers led to the creation of new radio telemetry systems (RTS) with a digital radio link. Their tests for the USSR Navy were planned for sea areas, therefore, at the insistence of the OKB V.P. Makeev, it was decided to develop a new ...


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