54

Gagarin learned about the problems with the hatch when the hatch was reopened. From Roscosmos: В 7.30 С.П. Королев поинтересовался о самочувствии у Ю.А. Гагарина. Казалось, что все идет согласно графику подготовки второго дня, но вдруг, когда до пуска оставалось несколько десятков минут, случилось непредвиденное. Слессари-монтажники Н.И. Селезнев, В.И. ...


48

The teeth served an aerodynamic function. ...metal teeth were added to the periphery of the impact ring in an effort to reduce the spin and oscillation during the descent and prevent the rough landings experienced by the 1978 missions. This is also why the earlier missions didn't have them, they were added in an attempt to mitigate problems experienced on ...


45

Shot answer: Was Sputnik-1 "only for beep" - no, it wasn't :) It was technical test of R-7 as space launcher and test of spacecraft in orbit (athough very simple spacecraft). Also scientists at least tried to make atmosphere research with Sputnik-1. (From my current search results I'm not sure they got much.) Long answer: It's current state of my ...


31

I don't know what the USSR was trying to do with it, but I know what the US Navy did with it. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Lab used the Doppler shift on the 20 MHz tone to determine Sputnik-1's orbit, plus ionospheric electron density and a couple of other things (like a transmitter frequency offset of ~1 kHz from the ...


27

Sputnik 1 was pressurized with nitrogen at 1.3atm. The period of the beeping was tied to a pressure sensor. The logic was being that if anything (such as a micrometeoroid) penetrated the satellite, the change in pressure would detect this and inform the scientists on the ground. This simple test had scientific value for the later programs with living samples ...


18

I believe that's the Sofora girder which was made up of 20 segments totalling 14 metres in length. There was an RCS thruster at the top end which made it easier to orient the station and used less propellant. It was assembled by Anatoli Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev during four EVAs in July 1991 and the thruster pack installed by Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli ...


16

Wikipedia's List Of Cosmonauts page has a handy breakdown for "Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia". According to that page: All Soviet and RKA cosmonauts have been born within the borders of the U.S.S.R.; no cosmonaut who was born in independent Russia has yet flown. Many cosmonauts, however, were born in Soviet territories outside ...


13

Updated answer: Mayak (Lighthouse/beacon) or URS truss, mounted on Salyut-7 in May 1986. Unfortunately, it is not the Sofora Arm, but the predecessor to it. From EVA's carried out from May 28 1986 to May 31 1986, Cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Soloviyov installed the URS (also known as Mayak) truss on the front compartment of the station, after ...


12

This article sheds light on some details. There was an air defense base nearby. They raised the alarm before Gagarin landed. An officer announced "We are working on space now!" which made everyone excited. Then they started to watch the skies. First they saw the Vostok spacecraft, then the catapult chair descending on its own parachute. The third ...


12

The earliest mention of the northern lights that I was able to find is the memories of the Voskhod-1 crew. «Наибольшее впечатление на всех нас произвело полярное сияние, которое нам удалось наблюдать в районе Антарктиды за несколько минут перед выходом из тени. Картина была такая: горизонт, затем тёмное небо, затем верхний слой яркости, подсвеченной луной, ...


11

Nothing is quite like spending the evening looking at blurry satellite photos of Kazakhstan. The landing area of Soyuz TM-26 had a relatively crowded landing area, with several probable buildings close to it: 50.18°N 67.50°E Wikipedia has the landing coordinates in two-digit decimal degrees, which gives a north-south accuracy of about 1km, and a slightly ...


11

I would note that only two USSR-born cosmonauts had flown to space not as citizens of Russia/USSR: Leonid Kadeniuk, citizen of Ukraine. Flew on the Space Shuttle for the STS-87 mission in 1997. Aidyn Aimbetov, citizen of Kazakhstan. Flew on Soyuz TMA-18M in 2015 to the ISS and returned to Earth with Soyuz TMA-16) after nine days.


10

Answer: Yes. Volga training simulator. Almaz space station (either training mock up or real) The pictures indicate he was inside Volga (Soyuz) and Almaz (Salyut-2). June 1972. Fidel Castro visited the Soviet Union as part of a whirlwind tour in 1972. The simulator was used for practicing changing out optical elements used in procedures like docking. Fidel ...


9

Descriptions for Salyut 1 through to Salyut 7 describe 20 portholes. At least 2 were on the transfer compartment (for Mir, at least 7 between Salyut 3-6). The rest seemed distributed in the floors and ceilings, usually either covered with a door or were for instruments. 7 differed in having 2 port holes for UV radiation, extra large window for astronomy, 2 ...


8

Looks like the first Soviet satellite with solar power capability was Sputnik 3, launched on the 15th May 1958, losing out to Vanguard 1 which was the first satellite with solar power launched only two months earlier. Of Sputnik 3, Wikipedia says It was powered by silver-zinc batteries and silicon solar cells which operated for approximately 6 weeks From ...


7

technically it was fiberglass with acrylic fibers - "стеклонитрон"("glass-nitron"). It was necessary to get down through the hot atmosphere quickly, but not hit the surface too hard. To accomplish this, the main parachute was reefed, a cord wrapped around the parachute cables held the mouth of the chute closed like a goblet, and the ...


6

There are some very different concerns here, but I think I can address a couple of them: First, why was it necessary for the Russians to land at local Noon on those days? Noon is the time of day were the least amount of atmosphere is blocking the Sun. One of the findings of Venera 8, which did not land at noon, was that there is sufficient light on the ...


5

Back in those early days of space exploration, the manned missions were formally Soviet missions, since Russia was only one of 15 socialistic republics of USSR. Korolev himself was born in Ukrainian SSR and started his studying in Kiev. As a side note, I myself had a priviledge to study at Kiev Politechnical University in that same room Korolev had been ...


5

Both internal pressure and temperature of Sputnik 1 were encoded in the radio signal. Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere. If the temperature exceeded 50 °C (122 °F) or fell below 0 °C (32 °F), another control thermal switch was activated, changing the duration of the radio signal pulses.[...


4

After the fact, yes, Sputnik 1 had some scientific value. But all it did was beep. That is a fact. It had no scientific payloads. No matter how much one sugarcoats the after the fact scientific discoveries inferred from Sputnik-1's orbit, the fact is that the Soviet Union intentionally stripped Sputnik-1 of all of the scientific instruments that the USSR ...


4

a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells were first used on the manned spacecraft Gemini in 1965. Image source: Smithsonian More info: On the Shoulders of Titans Chapter 7 Soviet designers had no problems with the additional mass of energy sources and were forced to use fuel cells only in the Buran spacecraft.


4

Venera-9 ... VEGA are built on the same basic platform, which has been modified over the years. By 1983, a spacecraft of the 1F series was developed, designed as a unified basic apparatus for carrying out multipurpose and diverse expeditions in order to study planets and small bodies (comets, asteroids, planetary satellites) of the solar system. The device ...


4

RD-107 seems to have been used in the R7 missile. It says in the article for the missile that 1st stage: 4x jettisonable four-chamber RD-107 booster engines each with 2x vernier rocket engines plus 1x four-chamber RD-108 core engine with 4x vernier rocket engines. So the RD 107 stage was used in quadruplets. So vernier engines existed on diametrically ...


4

В полете Ю. А. Гагарин пообедал. Из контейнера питания он достал щавелевое пюре с мясом, мясной паштет и шоколадный соус. После еды с помощью мундштука попил консервированной воды. Акт глотания не нарушался, и был сделан важный вывод о том, что в условиях космического полета можно принимать пищу и пить воду. Следует сказать, что большинство космонавтов с ...


3

Landing at night is a side effect of limited time and place options. Возможности ракеты–носителя «Протон–К» позволяли доставить на поверхность Луны возвратную ракету массой не более 5 кг — этого было явно недостаточно для обеспечения перелета Луна–Земля, учитывая необходимость проведения коррекций траектории. В этой критической ситуации было найдено ...


3

The choice of an inclination of 51.7° for Salyut 6 (and all other space stations with Russian contribution) is straight forward: It's the lowest inclination that can be reached from Baikonur without crossing the border of China during launch. The low inclination allows for the largest possible payloads due to the additional boost from Earth rotation. All ...


3

Watch this is an old movie. At 2:05 - "To maintain this position in the passive part of the trajectory, its powder engines twist around the axis of the descent vehicle." 2:34 - "As soon as the gauge of overloads will inform on a meeting with atmosphere of Mars, powder engines stop lander rotation." 3:16 - "...the engine to steer the ...


3

The "conical aerodynamic braking shield" was an aeroshell. The "gunpowder rockets" were small solid rockets. A set fired first to spin the vehicle up for stabilization during entry (hence the "control pitch and yaw"), and then another set fired to despin it. Reference and image: Soviet Robots in the Solar System, Huntress and ...


3

#22 - explosive bolt for opening the top cover As you can see in the diagram, the explosive bolt (#22) is in a comfortable environment inside the capsule, protected by thermal insulation (#11). https://epizodyspace.ru/01/2u/solnthe/ams/v-8/v-8.html


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