81

This image is very similar to the following image https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-130/html/iss022e062672.html with the following description STS-130 Shuttle Mission Imagery ISS022-E-062672 (9 Feb. 2010) Though astronauts and cosmonauts often encounter striking scenes of Earth's limb, this very unique image, part of a series over ...


53

Well I confirmed via Google Maps that this is Mecca. As shown in the map and image below the roads align with those lighted in the image. The dark areas in the first image are steep hills to the East. The brightly lit region is the Kaaba and large Masjid al-Haram Mosque, and the bright up light is indeed the Makkah Royal Clock Tower.


49

LAGEOS satellites This has, in a way, already been done, with the Laser Geodynamics Satellite (LAGEOS) satellites. LAGEOS satellites, (the second of which was launched from the shuttle on mission STS-52), have a projected orbital lifetime of over 8 million years. They are in a very stable medium Earth orbit. They are completely passive, but are ...


45

A reverse image search (once you tell Google you're looking for the space shuttle, not base jump) brings you to the picture on Getty Images, which states: Space shuttle above Earth's atmosphere, composite image (emphasis mine). So it's probably composed of one of the pictures linked to by OON and some other picture of the moon. Or that part could be ...


43

That's Saturn eating Cassini (remember Cassini's entry into Saturn's atmosphere at the end of its mission).


41

That video frame shows the top of the Apollo LES. The object under the cover is the Q-ball. The cover is removed at T - 9 s. The Q-ball is an angle of attack sphere perched above the launch escape system, The Q-ball is not unlike a pitot tube on an aircraft that measures airspeed. It consists of eight openings at the top of the Launch Escape Tower. These ...


38

The great majority of firework effects involve fuels and oxidizers incorporated together. The mortars and rockets would function fine to propel the shells, the burst charges would do their job, the stars would burn and glow. However, some effects do rely on an atmosphere: Obviously, you won't be hearing any reports or whistles. The combustion products will ...


25

The problems would be many to transmit a radio signal for 10,000 years. However there is nothing about a 10,000 year lifetime that would violate physics. It would just be extremely difficult engineering. I would use a thermally driven Stirling engine for power, magnetic torquer for attitude control, and vacuum tubes for the electronics (which are much more ...


22

To complement, not attempt to replace, the other answers, I would like to propose a difficulty I see nobody having mentioned so far, but which could potentially be very problematic over such long time scales. Micrometeorite bombardment. Even after only 15 years in low (550 km) Earth orbit, we know that the Wide Field Planetary Camera II (WFPC2) on Hubble ...


21

The Federation of American Scientists website, includes the image in a page entitled "DIA Military Art Series: The Threat In The 1980s" and credits the image to a Defence Intelligence Agency artist, Edward L. Cooper. An accompanying page explains the historical context of this work The Agency commissioned these works of military art to illustrate ...


21

Yes. Most craft, when docking with the ISS do a fly-around to survey the docking site. They can then frequently capture images of the ISS from the top view. Here is one from the Shuttle Atlantis taken during fly around: Source: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2008/03/International_Space_Station_seen_from_Space_Shuttle_Atlantis3 courtesy of ESA.


20

Several space selfies were made and chances are you already know the very first one Buzz Aldrin took of himself during Gemini 12. The cameras used are large-ish but imagine even holding a shoe box in front of you with thick gloves on: you're still able to point it at yourself in a distance suitable to make a photograph of yourself, provided the lens' focal ...


19

I made the images on wikipedia with my own software. The original on wikipedia is here: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lunar_libration_with_phase_Oct_2007.gif The main work needed is getting the proper position of the moon with its precessing elliptical orbit, while the orientation is based on a constant rotation rate. This book is an older one, ...


18

The dinosaur, an Apatosaurus named "Tremor" is the unofficial third crew member (in the DM2 webcast also sometimes jokingly referred to as a stowaway) of SpX-DM2. It was chosen by Doug Hurley's and Bob Behnken's sons, who are both dinosaur fans. Plush toys have somewhat of a tradition of being used as a zero-G indicator in spacecraft, since they ...


17

The youtube channel Cody's lab has tested some small fireworks in a vacuum chamber. Fireworks in vacuum, some pyrotechnics, and gunpowder. While in principle the firework carry the oxidizer and don't depend on air, in practice they did not work very well, as the gases escape too fast to sustain the combustion. So normal fireworks probably would not work very ...


15

The biggest challenges are going to be what people have already mentioned - the funding (don't skirt over that comment, you did ask for the challenges), an energy source for 10,000 years, and how to make a flash or radio pulse based on parts that can last that length of time. Electronics, by the way, is a particular problem. I've heard people boast low ...


15

Now that I have my comment out of the way, I can't envision sending something up to a relatively high LEO would be either effective or efficient. It would make far more sense to do something on a suborbital trajectory -- this saves you a huge amount of delta-V and provides much finer control over the timing and dispersion of your reentering particles. It ...


15

TLDR; They didn't. I submitted NASA FOIA request 19-JPL-F-00295 asking about this, and they responded: [...] JPL confirmed that the song was not radiated to the spacecraft. It was just played on someone’s laptop in mission control as the transmission began. So it seems the original story's information had sifted through one too many people or stretched ...


13

I am familiar with the spin dynamics of both New Horizons and Ladee, since I performed nutation fuel slosh tests on models of the spacecraft in my drop tower facility, Applied Dynamics Laboratories, in Oregon. In the absence of on board liquids, primarily propellant, or other flexible elements, the spin motion will be stable about the intended principal axis....


13

The color of that replica looks about right. You're looking at the heat shield, which consists of phenolic epoxy resin. The heat shield has several outer coverings: a pore seal, a moisture barrier (a white reflective coating), and a silver Mylar thermal coating that looks like aluminum foil. These burned away during reentry, leaving the brownish resin as ...


13

Some further information on the manipulation or possible genuine situation can be had by analyzing the perspective in the image. I measured the length of the orbiter as 49 pixels and the diameter of moon as 251 pixels in the image. Because the apparent size of the moon is approximately 0.5 degrees when camera is anywhere close to earth, we can calculate ...


13

Looks like it was indeed Goddard. Key search term was 'flash powder' not gunpowder. The Smithsonian has a box built and used by American rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard in experiments in 1916 to determine the amount of magnesium flash powder to be carried in a unmanned rocket to strike the surface of the Moon to signal its arrival. Source: https://...


12

These are some of the SPHERES satellites. They're little flying robots, driven by pressurised gas, intended to fly around inside the station. They were created for various indoor experiments, such as docking and formation flying, without needing some extremely complicated (and easily lost) system rated for independent flight outside the station. They've ...


12

That frame is from the movie "Taming of the Fire". In Russian: "Укрощение огня". You can watch it on Mosfilm website: http://cinema.mosfilm.ru/films/film/Ukroshenie-ognya/ukroschenie-ognya-1/ According to IMDB: Ukroshcheniye ognya (1972), June 1973 (USA), 2h 46min About Russian space program and missile industry, and it's founder ...


12

It's an older Delta, which as you say, is not (and was never) used to supply the ISS. Image source: Wired article on the Delta II Delta II flew its last mission in 2018. (wikipedia) I don't know if this is the footage used in the show, but one of the Delta missions, GPS-IIR-1, suffered a really spectacular failure of a solid rocket booster not long after ...


11

I like @PearsonArtPhoto's answer, though the considerations about exposure time may not be correct. I was looking for something more visual. The website states an area of 0,53m² of the Van Gogh image, and since the original is 92.1 × 73.7 cm², the large version must be about 0.817km wide. During his year in space, Scott Kelly took tons of photos, one of ...


11

They appear to be nuclear reactor modules, telescoped away from the rest of the station and each other for safety purposes. I googled 'MSFC-70-PD-4000-53' and found NASA's 1970 Space Flight Evolution proposal, which describes (among other dream projects) a broadly similar "space base" design, albeit more general purpose than the fuel depot: The ...


10

This is the "Space Window" of the National Cathedral in Washington. Source: NASA The National Cathedral website identifies the rock as Piece 230 of Apollo 11 rock no. 10057, and further states that it was given by Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins on the 5 year anniversary of the first steps on the moon during Apollo 11. This NASA page ...


10

Fireworks need three things to operate, heat, fuel and oxygen*. Luckily for the idea of fireworks on the Moon or Mars, many fireworks use a pyrotechnic composition that supplies their own oxygen which is why the devices will work under water or in an inert environment. Any fireworks operating in space, on the Moon or on Mars would need some slight changes ...


9

No, the reflector hasn't been deployed. Project head, Alexander Shayenko reported about it (RUS) (ENG) today. Early report information On July 17th the team reported about possible success (RUS) (ENG). They analyzed the TLE of orbits of 73 satellites in cluster. Based on braking factor(#9 element) and ballistic ratio(#11 element) they found 2017-042F, ...


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