25

This is an old question, but nobody has properly answered it. The ultimate answer is the Columbia disaster. This disaster demonstrated that the growing expense of, and inherent risks in, the Shuttle program precluded long term use of the Shuttle. From chapter 9, page 210 of the Report of Columbia Accident Investigation Board (emphasis theirs): Even so, ...


22

The cost of running the space shuttle never met the predictions, and was more expensive (Largely due to the standing army of folk it took to prepare and manage it). Then after the Columbia broke up on re-entry the lack of options for aborts, bailouts, etc, and the inherent danger in the foam on the main tank hitting the wings the notion slowly morphed into ...


12

Their future plans does not have Mars as a target at the moment. The ISRO is working manned mission technology in addition to the Moon, Venus, Sun and asteroid probes. They are also working to collaborate more with NASA on Mars and Moon missions after their first successful NASA/ISRO success: “To this end the working group agreed to continue discussions ...


9

The simple answer is that between operating shuttle and station, there were no funds left in the human spaceflight budget to develop anything new to go somewhere else or do something different, assuming a flat budget. By all indications, a flat budget is an extremely good assumption. They had to pick one to kill, and dropped the one that had been ...


8

I've studied this out, and found a few additional close calls. But there hasn't been any launches out of Europe itself, except for Russia. This is probably because Europe is too population dense to make a launch safe. Some information taken from Gunter's space page. France has launched from Centre interarmées d’essais d’engins spéciaux (CIEES), Hammaguir, ...


7

There are proposals for a follow-up mission to Mars, involving a lander: http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/VSSC-Chief-Hints-at-Second-Mars-Mission-Using-GSLV/2013/12/21/article1957410.ece This mission would be launched using either the GSLV-Mk2 or Mk3.


6

During the time of USSR, Bulgaria participated in a space program Soyuz 33. Then the Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgi Ivanov together with his Russian colleague Nikolai Rukavishnikov were launched into space in 1979. The scientific program for the flight was prepared entirely by Bulgarian scientists, along with some of the equipment as said per Wikipedia. ...


5

The picture shows 2 analog astronauts wearing the Mars analog spacesuit Aouda in the Dhofar desert in Oman, conducating the ScanMars experiment during the AMADEE-18 Mars simulation. The AMADEE-18 Mars simulation was organized by the Austrian Space Forum (oewf.org), a citizien science organization based in Austria. The association consits of space ...


5

The Shuttle had some unique capabilities that would have been difficult or expensive to replicate using expendable rockets. The combination of accommodation for 8 people plus the ability to carry ~20 tons of cargo enabled missions like Spacelab and the Hubble service missions. The Shuttle also served as a construction base for the ISS. Other missions (...


4

I suspect you're referring to articles like this one: With Ariane 6 Launch Site Selected, CNES Aims To Freeze Design of the New Rocket in July ... Taking advantage of work done years ago on what was then a quarry, CNES officials have selected a site to the north of the Ariane 5’s launch site for Ariane 6, an area called Roche Nicole. Quarry ...


3

There are two different issues here- what time zone do the people in space use and what time zone the mission control center uses. The crew uses the elapsed time. To quote Paul Lockhart's answer to a similar question, ....On the shuttle we use mission elapsed time. This is kept by the computers as soon as launch is initiated. And once we are on orbit, ...


2

If we assume around 4000 total launches, and make the wildly inaccurate assumption that the average is 3000Tons (Saturn V plus maximum LEO payload)... 12 million tons. (Actual is less). Earth Mass 5.972E21Tons. 12E6 tons versus just shy of 6E21 =0.5E15=5E14 So under 1/4.976E14 or 2 quadrillionths. Given the stupidly high assumption of mass launched, and ...


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