This page has a good list of designs (though these are all for the largest inhabitable structure) and explanations of the challenges. In short, gravity is the main challenge, both in restricting how big you can build a structure and how well you can live in that structure. Many of the designs take the form of big hollow spheres, or shells:
A shell with ...
Note: Engineering Judgement Applied when figuring what active proposal means
No, there are no active proposals for a future crewed space station to use artificial gravity.
The only planned space station which has a realistic chance of being built close to its announced schedule is the 'Chinese large modular space station'
It is a free-fall design.
You can ...
Roskosmos has plans to build a Mir-type orbital station (without artificial gravity) using new ISS modules.
Roskosmos after 50 years of work with orbital stations in Earth orbit plans to build a small lunar orbital station.
All interests of Roscosmos on the Moon:
The Apollo missions carried:
Five sleep restraint ropes, 0.2 pounds each, CM stowage location A5. It appears that these were also used to tie down cargo for Earth re-entry. (from Apollo stowage lists)
Nylon cord, unspecified amount, inside the (qty 2) Combination Survival-Light Assemblies, CM stowage location R4. (from Apollo Experience Report: Crew ...
Each shuttle mission had significant amounts of rope / cable / cordage aboard.
sky genies - 40 feet of rope per crewmember
RMS rope reel - 80 feet of rope
astrorope - 20 feet of rope per EVA crewmember (development item, not normally flown)
EVA winch - 24 feet of rope
EVA safety tether reel - 35 or 55 feet of cable, per EVA crewmember
From Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System, the ARED (Advanced Resistive Exercise Device) was eating through 80 inch (2 metre) vectran ropes every six weeks for "several years". This was later switched for a polyester rope that proved more durable, even after an initial splice failure made them go back to ...
This seems to be the Mir module Spektr - damaged in a 1997 collision which caused an air leak. It was evacuated and sealed off, though later had to be reopened so that power cables could be reconnected.
No brains blown out, though - everyone survived. There is a short recording here from the BBC, with one of the crew on board explaining the experience.