25

I thought it might have been earlier, you know, like Donkey Kong, but its the first that has a Guiness World Record. guinnessworldrecords Who ALEKSANDR SEREBROV Where RUSSIAN FEDERATION When 01 JULY 1993 Russian cosmonaut Aleksandr A. Serebrov (b. 15 February 1944) became the first person to play a videogame in space when he packed a Game Boy and his ...


11

The latter: not really in a separate TCM, but integrated into long propulsive burns ... which may be updated after anomalies occur. TCMs are small maneuvers (possibly as small as 5-10 m/s) and used to correct differences between the mission design and the flight (e.g. launch errors, thruster misalignment errors, etc.). Optimization of TCMs include the exact ...


11

Partial answer: The Symphonie satellites A and B were the first communications satellites built by France and Germany (and the first to use three-axis stabilization in geostationary orbit with a bipropellant propulsion system) to provide geostationary orbit injection and station-keeping during their operational lifetime Symphonie-A was launched from the ...


9

The Apollo guidance computer was built with RTL logic. RTL was followed by DTL and later by TTL. The Apollo guidance computer used only a dual three input NOR gate. Integrated RTL logic was introduced 1961, DTL 1962 and TTL 1963. The Gemini computer was built without integrated circuits, only discrete components, see Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA ...


9

Looks like the first Soviet satellite with solar power capability was Sputnik 3, launched on the 15th May 1958, losing out to Vanguard 1 which was the first satellite with solar power launched only two months earlier. Of Sputnik 3, Wikipedia says It was powered by silver-zinc batteries and silicon solar cells which operated for approximately 6 weeks From ...


8

In Robert Heinlein's 1950 Novella "The Man Who Sold the Moon", the central character raises the possibility of using the moon as a billboard. He does not actually propose to do it, but he gets support from one company by suggesting that a competitor (with a simpler logo) might put its logo on the moon. Even in the fictional world of the story, this ...


7

I think that there must be many such collisions that occurred without even the satellite operators noticing, and certainly not reporting them. There were also intentional collisions with anti-satellite tests even back in the 1960's. The earliest I could find was a 1996 collision with Cerise. The Orbital Debris Quarterly News (a NASA publication) called it ...


7

According to "Military Implications of the Transfer of Semiconductor Technology to the USSR", the Minuteman II used "monolithic TTL" integrated circuits https://www.cia.gov/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000969810.pdf These were likely custom TTL chips made by Texas Instruments, predating the military 5400 version of the 7400 family. Whic ICBMs ...


7

Near loss of SOHO There are three "firsts" that I think are relevant to this question. The first is the near loss of SOHO on June 24, 1998. You can read the details on the Wikipedia page but the summary is the flight operations team was performing some normal attitude control tests when the spacecraft sensors lost sight of the Sun causing the ...


7

For your first question, it was definitely not the first teletype printer: The airlock module had other functions, too. In it were located the controls for the temperature of the Skylab and the purification system of its air. In addition to the space station's electrical control and hazard warning systems, the module also had a Teletype printer, like that ...


7

Excellent question, with easy answers! Humanity first saw our planet from space in 1946 (in black & white), thanks to a camera strapped to a suborbital altitude test of the A-4/V-2 ballistic missile [1]. Von Braun, the Nazi scientist responsible for building this missile, would later put man on the moon using his Saturn rocket. Of course, we had ...


6

UPDATE 2: Confirmed that (unencrypted) teletype existed on Salyut 2, from one of the programmers on the teams, with an amusing note on where they got the magnetic tape from: On board the Salyut-2 and the Salyut-3 stations, the Salyut-2M computers were installed. It had a tape drive... Magnetic tape for this drive was taken from American balloons. The ...


5

According to Computers in Spaceflight, the Voyager Attitude Articulation and Control System Computer. Dubbed "HYPACE," for Hybrid Programmable Attitude Control Electronics, it was a byte-serial processor with substantial power. Using the same 4K, 18-bit-wide plated-wire memory from the Viking Orbiter computer, HYPACE added transistor-transistor ...


5

I understand I am (3 years) late to the party, but I was recently linked to this question and figured I could determine a pretty accurate way to answer question 2 of 3 (how far from Earth at separation). I know the question asks for "roughly" how far but I have seen many of OP's questions looking for far greater detail on other topics so I am ...


5

I have finally tracked it down! In a recent question: Do Mariner 4 Hand Rendered Images Still Exist here, this was linked: http://www.directedplay.com/first-tv-image-of-mars In it we have this quote from Dan Goods who, as Jezero mentioned, is head of the Studio at JPL which manages creative projects: I was able to interview Richard “Dick” Grumm, who is the ...


5

February through August, multiple times, 1969. (TL;DR) Q: What was the first unplanned "over-the-air" software update of a spacecraft? A: Mariner 6 and 7 probes, launched in 1969 to observe Mars, differed to the earlier probes in having new computers that could be reprogrammed. This allowed, for the first time, changes to be made to the missions ...


5

DS1 was a JPL technology-demonstration mission launched in 1998. It used an ion-propulsion system (IPS) for trajectory shaping and used both IPS and RCS for TCMs. DS1 flew by asteroid 9969 Braille on July 29, 1999 and comet 19P/Borrelly on Sept 22, 2001. This link points to a collection of reports about Deep Space 1 AutoNav. Several IPS TCMs were used on ...


4

Unsure if it was the first dogleg, but the launch of Telstar 1 was certainly an early one (July 10 1962). Because of range safety considerations, when a Delta vehicle is launched from Cape Canaveral the launch azimuth may not exceed 108°. This establishes a path which crosses the equator at an angle of about 33°. The orbital inclination will have this value ...


4

The scoop on the end of the robotic arm dug a scoopfull of soil. It then moved the scoop over the top of the dome, and tipped the scoop to release the soil, which trickled down the dome to the base of the seismometer. Repeat 4 or 5 times. This buried several inches of cable, nearest the seismometer, to a depth of just a few millimeters. Source: Examining ...


4

First of all, in Russia, the term 'spacesuit' (скафандр) can be a little ambiguous as it refers not only to space suits, but to generally any suit that isolates a human from the environment and provides a living environment within. Going by that characteristic, the first closed- loop suits were developed very early on in the 1930s. These models (СК–ЦАГИ and ...


4

I believe that NASA's Mars 2020 mission beats both: Cruise Stage deploys (aerodynamic) Descent Vehicle ("Aeroshell") deploys (rocket-powered) Descent Stage ("Skycrane") deploys Perseverance deploys Ingenuity That is four deploys compared to the three you listed, and happened about a month earlier.


4

I worked for Hughes Aircraft back in the 1980s when this transition was underway. Hughes built many (most?) of the geosynchronous communication satellites in those days, and they were all spin-stabilized. That approach has several benefits. First, the attitude is passively stable because the angular momentum significantly exceeds the environmental torques (...


3

By my count, the OP asks two questions. I'll anecdotally answer the one that asks if astronauts practice on each other. I was the "backup" medical officer for STS-109 (the primary medical officer was a veterinarian!). While training for said mission, I went to the medical clinic at the Johnson Space Center one day after hours for IV training. NASA ...


3

The first space probe using distributed computing was Voyager: Voyager employs three dual-redundant computer systems per spacecraft. The first, the CCS, is nearly identical to that flown on Viking, performing sequencing and spacecraft health functions along with new ones necessitated by the addition of the other computers. Telemetry data formatting and ...


3

Gagarin's Vostok 1 mission was entirely controlled by automatic systems or by ground control. In an emergency, Gagarin could have had manual control by entering a code, but he never did. It appears the initiation of decent of Vostok 1 was done automatically, 07:25 UTC The spacecraft's automatic systems bring it into the required attitude (orientation) for ...


3

LISA-Pathfinder uses Colloid/FEEP thruster for keeping exact position on it's trajectory around Sun/Earth-L1.


3

Yes it has on the Dawn mission to be exact. The ion drive uses an energized xenon atoms to propel it (It has three). Dawn mission NASA it was launched in 2007 and is still active today


3

Partial answer: I have a different contender: The LES-5 satellite, launched in 1967, was an early experiment in satellite-based communications broadcasting continuously since it was launched in 1967. It was decommissioned and placed in a “graveyard orbit” in 1972. https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/satellites/a32293223/les-5-satellite/ It became ...


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