24

We are "in space", in fact everything that exists and has a physical presence is. But what we usually mean by it is to describe "outer space" conditions of near (or hard) vacuum, where atmospheric pressure is already low enough to affect matter differently than under true atmospheric conditions, for example at atmospheric pressure below triple point of water....


16

The claim may be based on a misunderstanding. The solid rocket boosters are made in Utah and transported to the launch site in 4 segments by rail, which does limit their size. But it's not the track gauge that determines this limit, but the the loading gauge, which is only very indirectly related to the track gauge. However, the diameter of the shuttle ...


15

Introduction to selecting a reference surface The surface of any celestial body can be anything but uniform. The oceans, where existing, can be treated as reasonably uniform, but the surface or topography of the land masses can exhibit large vertical variations between mountains and valleys. These variations make it impossible to approximate the shape of ...


11

The International Space Station's PMA docking adapters and Tiangong-1 both use passive APAS-95 docking adapters for spaceship operations; the ISS additionally uses CBM connectors for connecting modules (including most supply spacecraft) and Soyuz probe-and-drogue connectors for Russian modules and craft. To cover your scenarios: Connecting two APAS ...


9

I was able to find a few requirements for CubeSats that are based upon its integration into a larger system which includes a primary payload (all instances of primary payload are bolded in quotes below, emphasis mine): CubeSats shall not present any danger to neighboring CubeSats in the P-POD, the LV, or primary payloads: 2.2.1.1 All parts shall ...


7

Concurrent with TildalWave's reply I too say 'Karman line'(100 kilometres (62 mi) above the Earth's sea level). Apart from the fact the K-line is legally so recognized an alternative definition of 'in space' is covered in the same Wikipedia article ... any vehicle at this altitude would have to travel faster than orbital velocity in order to derive ...


6

If you've been reading "for quite some time", you probably know much more than I do. However ... From this general article http://machinedesign.com/fasteners/epoxies-and-adhesives-fit-space I found a mention of NASA's "Vacuum stability requirements of polymeric material for spacecraft application". This standard doesn't appear to have been amended since ...


6

The beginning of outer space and spaceflight is something hard to classify because the boundary between an atmosphere and the vacuum of space is very fluid. A space border is to be defined according to what one considers air and space / what one considers important in these matters. The space border may be an air pressure border rather than an altitude ...


6

To contradict everyone else, the US Air Force used an altitude of 50 miles when awarding the Astronaut Badge to pilots of the X-15.


6

There's a forum post here that has some interesting information: Well, there was SOME justification for the decision to cast the propellant in Utah-- the cool dry climate there, especially the low humidity, helped considerably in getting a CONSISTENT propellant casting, especially in casting multiple segments for a solid rocket motor. Aerojet ...


5

I am fairly certain that what you are referring to as the "landers" are actually just cases for the rovers. MINERVA stands for "MIcro-Nano Experimental Robot Vehicle for the Asteroid". Note that its name only talks about rovers. If you take a look at this picture (courtesy Sky and Telescope Magazine), you can see that the rovers are contained within a more ...


5

Docking starts with two ships moving towards each other. This closure speed has to be reduced to 0 during the docking maneuver, this is done by the Soft Capture System. The larger the docking ship is, the more energy needs to be handled and dissipated by the SCS. The SCS has a set range of motion. Within that range, the docking object has to come to a ...


5

For Mars, the current definition of 0 km is derived from data from the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data from Mars Global Surveyor. In fact the altitude reference is referred to as "MOLA altitude". You would say for example: "minus 1.4 km MOLA". From the paper: Zero elevation on Mars from MOLA is defined as the equipotential surface (...


4

Outer space begins at the Kármán line (correctly stated by @TildalWave). This has been accepted by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FIA). Quoting Wikipedia: The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres (62 mi) above the Earth's sea level, and commonly represents the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and outer space. ...


3

If you conduct a loads analysis of both your end and the deployer and can prove that you still have adequate factors of safety in your design then getting a waiver should not be terrible. It's not unusual for a few waivers to be considered in a submission, but it varies a lot by dispenser vendor and launch provider in terms of how hard they are to approve. ...


2

The reference datum is usually chosen to be about the average altitude. For example, on Mars, the datum, known as the Mars areoid, is very close to the average radius of Mars, as measured round the equator. (It was defined by the height at which the pressure corresponds to the triple point of water.) In reality it wouldn't matter very much what the ...


1

for question 1: bandwidth required depends on what kind of communications you want. Telephone can be done in something like 9.6 kbit/s for one device, video needs hundreds of kbit/s. The satellite (and its ground station) is designed with a certain load in mind (X devices * Y kbit/s), and the satellite owner buys/negotiates enough bandwidth to use this ...


1

The list of NASA certified space-rated epoxies is long and contains hyperlinks, so I'll show the definition and categories here, and leave the link for the actual list. https://www.masterbond.com/certifications/nasa-low-outgassing The industry standard test for measuring outgassing in adhesives and other materials is ASTM E595. Developed by NASA to screen ...


1

Your question seems to be very broad. Different countries employ different types of Qualification Standards. Here are a few NASA Technical Standards Program, Europe - ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardisation), JAXA parts and Standards Program etc. Based on your broad Criteria, I would like to quote an example for your understanding. If there is ...


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