44

Whatever you use as a coolant will become hot. Hot oxygen will (a) vaporize, making the plumbing somewhat more difficult, and (b) react with and erode (or maybe even ignite) the cooling channels, unless they're made of special materials.


39

According to the link here, In meteorological rockets, the temperature sensor is not measured as the rocket ascends but a payload containing the sensor is ejected from a high altitude and as it parachutes down measurements are beamed back.


31

Space telescopes like Spitzer, Herschel, Planck, WISE, and in few years Webb, need to observe in the mid and far infrared wavelengths. The infrared radiation of normal spacecraft temperatures, even if kept cold by our standards, would look like a bright light at those wavelengths. (Google black-body radiation to learn more.) The infrared detectors need to ...


28

As noted in another question, the ISS faces some pretty hot temps. Remember, the Sun heats radiantly. When you're sitting in that much radiant heat, without an atmosphere to dissipate it, you're going to get hot really quick (emphasis mine) Without thermal controls, the temperature of the orbiting Space Station's Sun-facing side would soar to 250 degrees ...


25

If surviving lunar nights are difficult to ensure the survival of the electronics, say on lunar rovers, in the low temperatures, The temperature itself is not the primary reason. Lunar nights are difficult to survive because you have 14 days of darkness. If you want to design a solar-powered rover that can store enough energy to stay warm for 14 days, ...


24

Convection isn't a usable heat dissipating function in space, because there is no convecting medium. Radiation, however, works extremely well. Any body in space will radiate in a wide range of wavelengths, and will also absorb radiation. So any part of a space craft or satellite facing the sun will absorb heat (a net gain) and any facing away will radiate ...


24

Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) system is a part of the International Space Station's (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Thermal Control System (TCS) is a component part of the THC system and subdivides into the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS, PDF document) and Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS). From a PDF document ...


22

While the solar corona is very hot, it also has very low density: Wikipedia gives a ballpark figure of about 1015 particles per cubic meter, which, at 1 million Kelvins, translates to a pressure of about 0.01 Pa. That's a pretty good vacuum, comparable to that in low Earth orbit. The low pressure means that the coronal plasma doesn't hold much heat that it ...


22

From Status of the JWST Sunshield and Spacecraft found in @Antzi 's answer: Most of the electronics is on the "hot side" but there needs to be some conventional electronics on the cold side (beside the cooled IR sensor chips). Small thermal environments on the cold side are equipped with heaters to provide mini-environments at normal operating temperature ...


17

The specific heat capacity of the fuel is higher than that of the liquid oxygen at the operating temperature/pressure, hence for the same rate of flow, using the fuel cools better ... and apart from any of the above-mentioned liquid/vapour/pressure issues. The operating temperature range when using kerosene / RP-1 is also much greater than if using LOX. As ...


16

Yes, they would be more stable, but there is a big issue as to where you'd want it to be. There's a paper on this very subject. The paper states that at specific rings around Mercury near the poles, that just below the surface the temperature is constant and near room temperature, making them quite ideal for colonization. Bottom line, it is entirely possible,...


16

Source: Me. I currently work as a systems engineer on JWST. JWST will operating from the 2nd Lagrange Point (aka L2), which is approximately 1.5 million km (or 930,000 miles) past the Earth in Sun-Earth line. This is approximately 4x the distance from the Earth to the Moon. This distance, in addition to its lissajous orbit, ensure it will not encounter ...


15

I've done a fair deal of spelunking (caving) and one of the first things you realize when you've visited several caves is that their inner air temperature tends to be at roughly the yearly average of the outside temperatures. They might produce their own climatic system if they're deep enough or have any connection with the outside temperatures, like both ...


15

Short answer: Overall temperature of a satellite around Earth is more or less the same than on the ground due to heat from the Sun and heat from systems. Cryogenic propellants must be stored at very low temperature, or they evaporate. This is not effective for a satellite which must stay in orbit for years (unless the satellite orbits Saturn where the ...


14

Other factors being equal, planetary temperature (measured on an absolute scale e.g. degrees Kelvin) falls with the square root of distance from the sun, so a merely Earth-like atmosphere isn't enough to warm Mars. According to this planetary temperature calculator, an Earth-like planet (similar albedo and greenhouse-effect atmosphere) at Mars's orbital ...


14

Spacecraft Overview: "preliminary designs include an 8-foot-diameter, 4.5-inch-thick, carbon-carbon carbon foam solar shield atop the spacecraft body..., radiators for the solar array cooling system, ... actively cooled solar arrays". Low albedo for the heat shield isn't mentioned explicitely. A highly elliptical orbit leads to relatively short periods of ...


14

Everything of the Lunar Module should be as light as possible. Therefore no thick-walled, heavyweight, pneudraulic-type struts were used to absorp the landing shock but lightweight aluminum honeycomb cartridges. Shock was absorbed by crushing the honeycomb cartridges. The footpads were build as a sandwich structure of a honeycomb core between two aluminum ...


13

To add to Rory's answer, satellites also use heat pipes to transfer heat from the hot side to the cold side; they are highly thermally conductive. Consider a cube-shaped satellite, with one side facing the sun. By using heat pipes or otherwise distributing the heat, the radiative area can be increased to up to 6 times the sun-facing side. Keeping the ...


13

Insulation can function in both ways, keeping heat on whichever side is desired. In space limiting the amount of thermal input from the sun is very valuable since that heat is easily acquired but hard to get rid of.


13

The windows of the Cupola are not made of a single pane. When not shuttered, the Cupola windows present a four layered front to potential impactors: a debris pane, two pressure panes, and an innner scratch pane. The windows are designed to be completely replaceable in the event of severe damage. (1) There are electrical window heaters and there ...


13

Orbiting satellites can still have problems with eclipses, from loss of both power and heat but the total time is normally measured in minutes so simply having enough battery power to keep electronics running (and producing heat) and some basic insulation will allow temperature control. For unlit periods in days heat from nuclear decay is often used, ...


12

As with any satellite, the problem is more one of overheating than of freezing. A black body takes up a lot of heat, but it also radiates a lot. Other materials, like solar panels, radiate a lot less. This phenomenon is called gray body radiation, and I have explained it here: Why is gold used in space technology to protection from heat radiation? In ...


12

Here is an answer from over on aviation.stackexchange.com which addresses this issue. I've quoted a portion of it below, but see that link for more info. As you measure temperature moving at high velocities, your outside thermometer will measure a higher temp than what is actually outside (what a non-moving thermometer would get). That's because as ...


11

There are seasonal variations, but they are negligible. The biggest driver of seasonal variation on Earth is the 23 degree tilt. The Moon, however, with very little tilt compared to the Sun (1.54 degrees to the ecliptic), would have much smaller seasonal variations. The biggest variation on the Moon's surface, as you pointed out, are the temperature swings ...


11

I think you have it backwards - it doesn't matter where in the universe you are, absolute zero is still the same (-273.15°C) and the temperature increase marked by 1 Kelvin or 1 Centigrade is the same, so you could find a calibration point on any planet that came to the same temperature and list that as the way to measure 100°C etc. Realistically though, ...


11

High temperature in itself is useless. You need a temperature differential, just like the RTG exploits the difference between the temperature of the Plutonium and that of outer space. Kinetic energy (heat) flows from the high temperature region to the low temperature region and can do work on the way. On Venus, there's no gradient. Everything has the same ...


11

The temperature development of a satellite in LEO depends on a variety of factors. How (quickly) does the satellite rotate, how much is it in eclipse (night), what kind of radiators or internal heat sources exist, etc. When a space mission is being planned, thermal control engineers with dedicated software model the temperature development. What applies ...


10

There are a number of ways. Basically, you can either get a global record, or a record from a spacecraft. Curiosity provides us with the clearest cut version, available from its website. Mars Climate Sounder, on MRO, shows daily maps of the temperature as recorded from MRO. That data isn't readily available, but can be found from the Planetary Data System.


10

You are missing something basic here, which is that the Sun's corona is rather sparse. To take matters to an even greater extreme, consider the intergalactic medium. The temperature of the extremely sparse intergalactic medium can be in the hundreds of millions of kelvins. However, a macroscopic thermometer in this hot medium would not get anywhere close to ...


10

Apollo 11 deployed the Early Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), a set of scientific instruments that measured various parameters on the moon and transmitted them back to the earth, this included temperature. Here is a picture of Edwin Aldrin deploying the EASEP: There is a Technical Memorandum from Bellcomm Titled: Lunar Surface ...


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