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Electrochemical batteries that are independent of temperature are impossible. There have been different designs for high, medium and low temperatures, but for each design there is a certain operating temperature range. All chemical reactions are faster at higher temperature and slower at lower temperature. If it is too hot for the battery, lifetime of the ...


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From the article New: Hot Map of Venus, that I found in this answer: VIRTIS looked through the thick carbon dioxide curtain surrounding Venus and detected the heat directly emitted by the hot rocks on the ground. The instrument made use of the so-called infrared spectral "windows" present in the Venusian atmosphere. Through these windows thermal ...


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The article Venus nightside surface temperature shows a global map of Venus using Akatsuki infrared measurements. They reveal a hot surface with an average temperature of about 698 K and on a global scale, surface temperatures with a spatial variation of about 230 K ! Fig.1 in that article shows a blue region at 60⁰ N. latitude, that according to Fig. 2 is a ...


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We don't have proper readings from both, but entropy will tend to level the two out. They aren't always perfectly equal though! The most well known example is that of the seasons on Earth. The peak of summer comes after the solstice because of the ground's absorption of heat. But the relative temperature of the ground and atmosphere is roughly 0. You may ...


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Space in the vicinity of the Sun is not that cold, perhaps even out to Jupiter. One side of the spacecraft will be receiving sunlight while the side shielded from sunlight radiates into empty space. One simple solution to this is to put the vehicle into barbecue mode: The vehicle is made to slowly rotate, thereby preventing one side from getting too hot and ...


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The main obstacle is the existence of liquids. Liquid phase is quite "fragile" and in contrast with gases and solids, exist in pretty narrow conditions. Without a liquid phase, a lot of complex chemistry and mechanics become impossible. Solids are reluctant to react to each other chemically (atoms and molecules are locked down and can't travel to ...


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Purely based on an operational standpoint of semiconductive devices, equivalent resistances are considerably higher at low temperatures, and thus any calibrated circuit or component, including Rcomps, DLLs, PLLs, and clock compensators, will operate unexpectedly or not at all. These kinds of circuits are specifically developed with PVT (process, voltage, ...


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The magic words you're probably reaching for are "radiative cooling". If your ball is in a vacuum far from any star and doesn't generate any heat of its own, this isn't too difficult a problem to solve. There's even a handy calculator for it (and no doubt many others elsewhere) but I'll summarise the key bits here. The cooling rate in terms of ...


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There are many things that change at low temperatures. You already mentioned batteries, which are problematic for two reasons: First, liquid electrolytes get frozen at some point. Second, chemical reactions tend to happen a lot more slowly at low temperatures. Next issue comes from moving parts: Every joint needs some kind of lubricant - and these may start ...


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