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3

The landing time was selected to avoid the extreme temperatures. That's why there are huge shadows, the Sun's declination is low (I don't remember if it was early morning or late afternoon). During the 22 hours they were on the surface (Apollo 11, some others up to 4 Earth days IIRC) the lunar day didn't progress too much.


8

Apollo 11 deployed the Early Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), a set of scientific instruments that measured various parameters on the moon and transmitted them back to the earth, this included temperature. Here is a picture of Edwin Aldrin deploying the EASEP: There is a Technical Memorandum from Bellcomm Titled: Lunar Surface ...


9

The crash areas have probably been photographed, but the hard part is recognizing the impact. Here is the probable impact area of the Apollo 12 ascent stage: The discoverer notes: But I have just noted that on the west end of the ellipse is a curious area of small dark streaks, looking like some of the distal ejecta splotches the LRO team has reported ...


14

They absolutely could. The problem is, we don't have high resolution images of the Moon from before those crash dates, and thus it is very difficult to actually tell if a crater is a natural crater or the crash site of Apollo hardware. Bottom line, we've almost certainly imaged it, but we just don't know what we have seen. If you want to take a look, see ...


7

Update 2019: The Chinese Chang'e 3 mission landed the Yutu rover (meaning "jade rabbit") in December 2013. The rover was mobile for 42 days and communicated for 973 days. Its ground-penetrating radar discovered 9 rock layers, and it photographed a terran eclipse of the Sun. Chang'e 4 landed the Yutu 2 rover on the far side of the moon in January 2019. It ...


7

Yes, it was. According to a comprehensive paper about the Apollo 11 flag, there was even discussion within NASA and its Committee on Symbolic Activities for the First Lunar Landing about this possibility. Astronaut Michael Collins also wrote in Carrying the Fire that the possibility of taking up flags of all nations was also considered and someone even ...


7

Those are tongs. The tongs consisted of a set of opposing spring-loaded fingers attached to a handle and were used for picking up samples. Postflight evaluation of Apollo missions 11, 12, and 14 indicated a need for increased length, larger jaws, and additional closing force. These changes were incorporated for Apollo missions 15 through 17. Also, to ...


5

Interesting question! A quick check of Wikipedia's Helium-3 introduction says: The abundance of helium-3 is thought to be greater on the Moon than on Earth, having been embedded in the upper layer of regolith by the solar wind over billions of years, though still lower in abundance than in the solar system's gas giants. but let's not assume that ...


1

I saw a moon 3d set through a stereo viewmaster. It was of cooled lava formation on moon. It made the holes in the formation look totally 3d. My dad married a lady whose ex worked in the JSC photo dept. The slides were in his stuff when he died. One of the rarest NASA items that I have ever seen!


2

Not even remotely enough delta-v to make the TLI burn. The apollo burn was 3+ km/sec. The space shuttle OMS system was good for about 300 m/sec, so about 10% of the amount needed.


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