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5

How do solar flares and coronal mass ejections create proton storms? The proper answer to this questions fills multiple books and they all still end with lots of questions, but I will try to give a summary of what they say. First, solar flares are just the localized enhancement of electromagnetic (EM) radiation (usually dominated in UV and x-ray bands) ...


3

There is a detailed review of space weather effects on humans in space by Townsend [2021]. They highlight several solar energetic particle (SEP) events that would have exceeded 30 day short-term organ damage limits from recent observations, all of which are likely to be weaker than the Carrington event. They also provide the dose limits for blood forming ...


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Satellites like DSCOVR are used to predict solar storms. No they are not. Spacecraft cannot predict solar storms. They can inform a user that something is coming toward Earth, but they cannot predict the onset of solar phenomena. That is, spacecraft are capable of providing a warning but they cannot predict anything (I will distinguish that users ...


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