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43

There are multiple mock-ups of the ISS, for various purposes: The Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnston space center contains replicas of many modules of the ISS, some of them assembled together. The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory is used for EVA training, and has a modules in the pool The Space Station Training Facility does not have full modules, but ...


41

From the book "Go Flight!", once the astronauts got an ECG (EKG) of a patient having a heart attack and fed that to the Flight Surgeon during a test run. The surgeon missed it, and was reprimanded for not noticing that the astronaut died. It helped people take training a bit more seriously. A few others that aren't quite simulator related: One is ...


37

They used the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle, as pictured below. This had a jet engine to provide 5/6 of the lift needed to hover the vehicle, plus rocket engines that simulated the LM's engines. With the jet running, the LLTV felt like it weighed 1/6 of its actual weight, so it came pretty close to simulating moon gravity.


32

Not exactly a prank, but from an article on Ellison Onizuka: “We were doing simulations of engine-out aborts,” Buchli said. “Most of those wound up in what we called the ‘black zone’ — the area where survivability is very sketchy. We were doing those and just about every one of them, we ended up in the Atlantic Ocean.” “The next time we had that ...


32

I don't know if this qualifies as a practical joke or not, but at least it's semi-documented and not too in-jokey. Food and drink was forbidden in the Shuttle Mission Simulator motion base cockpit due to potential for spillage during motion ops. The STS-86 crew had a habit of breaking this rule by taking in water bottles during training. The base operator ...


20

I can't seem to find the video of it anymore, but at a talk back in (I believe) 2012, STS-135 commander Chris Ferguson described a story from one of his last mission simulator runs. For this particular sim, his crew went behind his back and coordinated with the SimSups to find out everything that was going to be thrown at them ahead of time. Throughout the ...


14

There are two methods which are used: Aircraft can fly on a trajectory that will simulate zero gravity for a few seconds, usually around 30. This is used for most short term zero gravity tests. It is commonly known as the "vomit comet", especially the earlier versions. Underwater testing can be done, in a neutral buoyancy lab. Basically, you make it so you ...


13

There were 3 LLTV crashes. One was caused by running out of the helium that pressurized the attitude control system, in the second crash the LLTV was flying in more wind than it was designed for, the third was a malfunction in the flight control system, while testing a major modification to the LLTV's computer system. Like the Harrier, it was rather ...


12

Try an exact phrase web search for "NASA shows the film as part of its management training program. Prospective managers are asked to find as many inaccuracies in the movie as they can." You'll get lots of hits. Lots and lots of them. That smacks of hand-me-down news, which makes the story ring a bit false. Where a source is attributed it's the Feedback ...


10

The "Vomit Comet" and similar zero gravity aircraft, as you say, fly a parabolic trajectory. Here's a description from Wikipedia. Initially, the aircraft climbs with a pitch angle of 45 degrees using engine thrust and elevator controls. The sensation of weightlessness is achieved by reducing thrust and lowering the nose to maintain a neutral, or "...


10

I can't speak for current procedures aboard a Soyuz or Shenzhou. From what I've seen, during launch the middle chair has pretty much all the access to various in-capsule systems (and thus the power and responsibility), though the two side chairs do have some tasks to perform. Aboard Apollo spacecraft, absolutely; each of the three astronauts trained and ...


9

No, you wouldn't become a superhuman. Well, at least not for the workout part of this endeavour. Essentially, every mass object would be heavier due to stronger gravitational pull of a larger mass planet than Earth. Say, you use weights to exercise on these gas giants the question you're referring to is inquiring about. And let's, for the sake of argument, ...


8

For the NASA KC-135, this is the trajectory they used to fly, for 25 seconds of 0 G: The Zero-G corporation uses a similar flight plan: Before starting a parabola, G-FORCE ONE flies level to the horizon at an altitude of 24,000 feet. The pilots then begins to pull up, gradually increasing the angle of the aircraft to about 45° to the horizon reaching ...


7

Imagine that you are falling. You would perceive gravity exactly the same way as you would if there were none. (This is one of the reasons that the sensation, even in space, is known as free-fall) Now imagine that as you fall, there is an airplane around you, matching your fall exactly. This is how planes such as the 'vomit comet' work. The role of the ...


7

The last NASA reduced gravity aircraft I can find is a C-9, registration N932NA, which is listed as stored (i.e. mothballed at Davis Monthan). This agrees with the note on the Reduced gravity program page: Website updated September 29, 2014 NASA has not decided how or if Microgravity Flights will occur in the future. This website will be updated ...


6

Unsurprisingly, yes. The book "Science Training History of the Apollo Astronauts" mentions training for photographic panoramas in several places. (These quotes may not be specific to Apollo 15 but it's clear from the book that it was common to all missions). Muehlberger describes the procedure for the panoramas that were taken at each station just ...


5

Blimey, that number surprised me since it only ever flew up to about 500 ft! Service ceiling is the maximum altitude (air pressure) at which an aircraft is designed to perform with expected stability that's constrained within its flight envelope: In aerodynamics, the flight envelope, service envelope, or performance envelope of an aircraft refers to the ...


5

Well, we can make some rough approximation based on the information in Wikipedia: The test program of 18 flights, all flown by Bud Ream, was successfully completed on June 2, and the Board finally gave approval on June 30, 1969 for Neil Armstrong to resume LLTV flights. In the 16 days remaining before the Apollo 11 launch Armstrong was able to complete ...


5

Essentially there was no difference – the LLRV was the "prototype", the LLTV the "production" version. Bearing new names, the LLTVs were nearly identical to the Dryden vehicles except for a few minor improvements to more closely match the LMs. (Dryden Flight Research Center - Lunar Landing Research Vehicle) As is not uncommon with prototypes, they made ...


5

Only one astronaut ejected from an LLTV--Neil Armstrong, in May 1968; the other two ejections were by training pilots. Armstrong's ejection was caused by a roll to one side late in a flight, when the hydrogen peroxide levels were already low: after a certain degree of roll the pickup port in each saddle tank was now uncovered (low $\text{H}_2\text{O}_2$ ...


4

A little expansion on what Digger commented. Assuming you weigh 200lbs, 3 gees will make it feel like you weigh 600lbs. You could imagine it as a 400lb person sitting on you. That's definitely uncomfortable, but it's only for 8-9 minutes. It's not dangerous if you're otherwise healthy. Further, not only is it really not that many gees, but they're ...


4

The only centrifuge training received by Shuttle astronauts was a 3g ride in the Brooks Air Force Base facility as new astronauts, followed by optional use of the facility to verify ascent/entry suit fitting. Description by Clay Anderson from here Shuttle training sent us to a San Antonio Air Force Base for a single ride in their centrifuge. The ...


4

From the book "Science Training History of the Apollo Astronauts", link from Organic Marble's excellent answer on page 138: Overlapping the images for a panorama was learned by try and error during the field exercises. Developing and mounting the panoramas was done during the night by a special photo lab team. What took hours in the photo lab is done today ...


4

50 seconds is actually possible but AFIAK there's no commercial jet with the performance to do it. Every second of zero g produces a downward velocity of 9.8 meters per second. Thus 50 seconds is 490 meters per second. If you were heading up at 245 m/s when you start the zero g maneuver you would be heading down at 245 m/s when you do your pullout. Since ...


4

It was done at the Johnson Space Center, in the regular training facilities. The Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS), for example, (the one I am familiar with) had the capability to run each simulator in "red" (classified) or "black" (unclassified) mode. To go from a classified mission's "training load" to an unclassified training load was called a "color ...


3

Supplemental answer time. OK Go! has just released Gravity is just a habit, the "making of" documentary about the original video OK Go - Upside Down & Inside Out. Not surprisingly, it's essentially the same number that is given in the accepted answer. The new video includes other details about preparing for the series of zero gee periods produced when ...


3

Thinking the effect when an astronaut comes back to earth from long time exposure in some low gravitational environments, the lost bone density won't be immediately regained. He/She faces greater chances of fracture. I believe human will face similar situation when going to a relatively high gravity planet. You will face higher chances of fracture, but ...


3

This information is from the 2006 version of the Shuttle Crew Training Catalog USA002960 Rev G., which is unfortunately not online. I've put it on my list to upload. You will note a lot of flexibility allowing the training flow to be customized for each individual depending on their role (first and last paragraphs of the text part). Payload Specialist ...


2

From NASA's website the payload specialist also must take a comprehensive flight training course to become familiar with Shuttle systems, payload support equipment, crew operations, housekeeping techniques and emergency procedures. This training is conducted at JSC and other locations, as required. Payload specialist training may begin as much as 2 years ...


2

There is a limit to how fast humans can build up muscles. Body builders choose weights and exercises to put their muscles under the ideal strain for muscle growth. The art of body-building is to find that ideal level for each muscle which neither under- nor overstrains it. A different gravity would mean that the weight of the athlets body itself increases ...


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