56

It is still way too early to make such a judgement. It's easy to be overly optimistic about the cost of a program. The Space Shuttle was supposed to have dozens of flights each year and be super-cheap because it was reusable. However, you simply don't know the true cost until a program has been in use for several years. After several years of the Shuttle, ...


55

From a pre-launch press release for Apollo 11: Among the many missions conceived at that time was a manned journey to the Moon and back. Dr. Silverstein himself named it "Apollo" after one of the most versatile of the Greek gods. Dr. Silverstein recalls he chose the name after perusing a book of mythology at home one evening, early in 1960. He ...


27

There's currently a single Google1 hit for that phrase2, so I strongly suspect this is a backronym the author thought was clever. It might be worth checking the reference given around this information "Battin, R. H., An Introduction to the Mathematics and Methods of Astrodynamics, American Insitute of Aeronautics and Astrodynamics,1987."3 -- ...


26

The speech is available in full here: https://dc.hillsdale.edu/News/Latest-News/The-Urgent-Need-for-a-U-S-Space-Force/ It's extremely general and non-technical. He talks about getting water from the Moon (!) at 20:25 into the video but does not discuss how. To sum up, there were no specific technical proposals in the speech, about water or anything really. ...


20

According to an authoritative-sounding post on collectspace here, it's statute (which matches my recollection). Edit: OP @costrom found an FAA document Fact Sheet – Commercial Space Transportation Activities which confirms it.


16

Are these statute miles (1609.344 m, 5280 ft) or nautical miles (1852 m, 6076-ish ft)? TL;DR Neither. Or rather, it is 50 statute miles, but a statute mile is not 1609.344 meters. That is the length of an international mile, and U.S. statutes have intentionally not made the conversion from survey miles to international miles. A statute mile is a synonym for ...


15

Eh, to begin with this statement isn't accurate. SpaceX ... has the same capabilities if not better? Falcon Heavy as stands can't replace SLS and launch Orion on the required orbit without significant modification. (and even if Falcon Heavy could launch Orion, it wouldn't be able to dual manifest Gateway modules) Dragon isn't comparable in capabilities to ...


13

All the answers are right in their own way. One thing that is not addressed: The Falcon Heavy is not even remotly on par with the SLS in terms of rocket diameter and payload mass. According to Wikipedia (Falcon Heavy, SLS) the Falcon Heavy can launch 63 tonnes to LEO while SLS can deliver a whopping 95 tonnes in the Block 1 configuration which (if everthing ...


12

Part of it is leveling employment. The government is fond of large projects that require multi-year ramp-up and ramp-down and massive up/down swings in employment need. Suppose in 2019 you're hiring every rocket scientist in town for project X. 2023, you lay them all off because the project is done. Then project Y arrives, a modification on an existing ...


12

The article says that the page has been adapted from Kwast's speech, so it's possible someone transcribed something wrong or misunderstood. Taking an excerpt: With the right vision and strategy for space, America can develop the means to: Deliver unlimited, clean, affordable energy to every human on the planet without power lines or terrestrial ...


12

Some early rocket programs: Mercury Gemini Saturn Apollo Atlas Thor Juno Athena Jupiter There's a definite naming pattern...


10

In the USA you must be at least 18 years old for the following, so that video may be incorrect. For example HPR Level 1 Certification by the National Association of Rocketry or NAR provides certification for: Level 1 allows the purchase and use of H and I impulse class motors; solid and hybrid. Certain F and G motors may also require Level 1 certification ...


9

No Here's what ITAR says about launch vehicles Category IV - Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles, Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs, and Mines (a) Rockets, space launch vehicles (SLVs), missiles, bombs, torpedoes, depth charges, mines, and grenades, as follows: Rockets, SLVs, and missiles capable of delivering at least a 500-kg ...


7

Any rocket capable of putting a spacecraft in orbit is going to fall under Category IV, paragraph (a), subparagraph (1), (2), or (4). Under Note 3 to paragraph (a), it explicitly calls out model and high power rockets defined in NFPA Code 1122 "made of paper, wood, fiberglass, or plastic containing no substantial metal parts and designed to be flown with ...


5

Just checked from the JPL Horizons website. It seems that it is in fact still there. I also looked at the JPL Small-Body Database. Looking up Toutatis, it says it was last updated in 2003. It seems very unlikely that it was specifically deleted because China wanted to send a spacecraft there.


4

Proton is Russian, and of course has failed, and badly recently. They skipped Ariane which had some early launch failures. India and Japan had lost vehicles as well. Everyone has launch failures at some point. (A more interesting question might be, is there a booster without a launch failure, defined as loss of mission/payload? Saturn V, Falcon Heavy come ...


4

These missions might be TIROS 9 and 10. These were sun-synchronous meteorological missions launched on Thor-Delta C launchers from Cape Canaveral LC-17A and LC-17B respectively: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIROS-9 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIROS-10 Found in Celestrak's SATCAT by looking for international designator "1965-" and sorting by launch site.


4

The answer is that SLS's prime purpose isn't a launch system, it's a jobs project. NASA was required to use 45 year old engine technology to ensure that jobs and contracts were funneled to Old Space contractors. There is no way a clean sheet NASA design for a large launch system to support manned deep space missions cost effectively would ever: • Re-use RS-...


3

According to Wikipedia, they're all related: Project Vanguard launched Vanguard satellites on Vanguard rockets, but only 3 of 11 launches succeeded. The US Naval Research Lab that ran the project doesn't have much to say about it.


3

There's the usual collection of overly dramatic news reports about this branch of NASA finding and tracking near-misses: express.co.uk reports a tracked object that came within 0.03860 AU. It's not clear when NASA first detected it. USAToday for a simulation drill that was run in mid-2019, as a tabletop exercise Monday-Friday at the 2019 ...


3

Speculation: Sanibel Island, Florida fits the bill. Like Cape Canaveral, it is on an island on the Florida coast, close enough to be reached by bridges. Its latitude is 2 degrees south of Canaveral (26°26′23″N versus 28°29′20″N), so actually slightly better. It's bigger in area than Canaveral (86 km$^2$ versus 5 km$^2$); plenty of room for the military, ...


3

Yes and Yes! The 18th SPCS (f.n.a "JSpOC") is a Part of the former "Air Force Space Command" (Wikipedia 18 Space Control Squadron). The AFSpC on the other hand became the "US Space Force" (AFSpC Website) Because the establishment of the US Space Force just happend only some months ago, plenty of sources and Wikipedia-Sites are outdated saying 18th SPCS is ...


3

One possibility is converting seawater into potable water. Given for the sake of argument there is "unlimited" energy, it could be used to power desalinization plants. However, I do not see how to get water to homes and businesses without some type of pipes and infrastructure.


2

SLS major work locations: Alabama- Testing & upper stage, engineering design Mississippi- Testing Utah- Solid rocket motor Florida- Launch pad updates Louisiana- Core booster, Orion California- Main engines Colorado- Engineering for upper stage, Orion So far as I can tell, it seems like these are where the major contracts are, although I don't doubt ...


2

Maybe The closest thing we have to using ITAR to regulate "software" would be 3D printed gun CAD files. Specifically a company called Defense Distributed makes CAD files for 3D printed guns and the US government used ITAR to stop them from distributing the files online On Thursday, Defense Distributed founder Cody Wilson received a letter from the ...


2

Absolutely not Origins of NASA Names, SP-4402, is the 242-page official NASA history of the names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. The entry for Apollo is three pages long and makes no mention of it being an acronym. Notably: Abe Silverstein, Director of Space Flight Development, ...


1

They use statute miles (50) or feet (264,000). 50 miles are 43.4488120950325 nautical miles so it's hard to convert. If you mean whether they use 50 statute miles or 50 nautical miles, it's easy to e.g. find out on Wikipedia the U.S. use a value that converts to about 80 km, therefore statute miles. But if you say "mile" only you usually don't mean ...


1

What does space have to do with water for every human? I'm not sure what specifically Steven Kwast is thinking of, but perhaps one or some combination of: Already farmers use space satellite multispectral photos to decide how much fertilizer and additional water to apply to crops. Better resolution, more frequent satellite passes, and more timely data ...


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