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48

The teeth served an aerodynamic function. ...metal teeth were added to the periphery of the impact ring in an effort to reduce the spin and oscillation during the descent and prevent the rough landings experienced by the 1978 missions. This is also why the earlier missions didn't have them, they were added in an attempt to mitigate problems experienced on ...


25

There is one area of exploration on Earth that approximates conditions on Venus, namely that of deep oil and gas mining, and a few additional areas of technology, near avionics engines, and even auto engines. The stated goal for such electronics is to function at 200 C or higher. The most promising technology for surviving high temperatures is Silicon ...


24

According to Wikipedia launch windows to Venus occur every 19 months. In some cases multiple successful probes were launched with the same design at the same time so I'll group those together (the Soviets launched two similar/identical missions per launch window they actually used to ensure mission success through redundancy). I'll label each mission with ...


21

The simple answer is that taken as a whole the Venera missions didn't land particularly close together. Starting with Venera 4: The overall spread of Venera landing sites (when you include the probes that didn't survive to the surface) is nearly 110° of longitude. For comparison, the spread of Luna landing sides on the map you provided of the moon is ...


15

Very short answer They are different generations of the same family of interplanetary spacecrafts. Short answer Zond 2, as well as Zond 1 and -3; and Venera 2 and -3, were interplanetary spacecrafts (in Soviet/Russian classification this category falls under "automated interplanetary station") of 3MV family 3MV English Wikipedia page (in Russian "3МВ" 3МВ ...


9

Surprisingly the answer is yes there was studies done on that subject. A simple google search could yield this result: BUOYANT PLANETARY ENTRY https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/642361.pdf In this study, it was assured that the large buoyant volune is deployed prior to atmospheric entry. The effect of buoyancy on the entry dynamics was ...


8

A protective cap As scientists in the control center eagerly awaited color images from Venus, sad news was announced, "There is a strong signal, but no modulation." All of the protective caps had failed to come off. After the problems on Venera-9 and 10, the caps had been redesigned, but now the results were even worse. An intensive study later ...


8

technically it was fiberglass with acrylic fibers - "стеклонитрон"("glass-nitron"). It was necessary to get down through the hot atmosphere quickly, but not hit the surface too hard. To accomplish this, the main parachute was reefed, a cord wrapped around the parachute cables held the mouth of the chute closed like a goblet, and the ...


6

There are some very different concerns here, but I think I can address a couple of them: First, why was it necessary for the Russians to land at local Noon on those days? Noon is the time of day were the least amount of atmosphere is blocking the Sun. One of the findings of Venera 8, which did not land at noon, was that there is sufficient light on the ...


6

Apparently you can't see very far, but not because of mist. The visibility was a pleasant surprise to the scientists who, after reviewing Venera 8, had predicted a dark, murky and dusty atmosphere in which only the near field would be available for inspection. The indistinctness and apparent nearness of the horizon in all of the images from the Venera ...


5

In 1964, the Soviet scientist A.D. Kuzmin, together with the American scientist Barry Clark, began observing Venus using a movable radiointerferometer consisting of two 27-meter paraboloids (Owens Valley Radio Observatory, California). The radius of the hard sphere of Venus was measured: 6057 km (before that, astronomers measured only the radius of the cloud ...


4

After a lot of looking, I found http://mentallandscape.com/C_CatalogVenus.htm "A digital video signal was transmitted from the lander to the orbiting main spacecraft and recorded on tape. It consisted of 6 bits per pixel (plus a 7th parity bit) encoding a logarithmic brightness value. Each scanline consists of 128 pixels, 11 of which are calibration and ...


3

A couple of considerations I replicated your hyperbolic Hohmann calculation for Earth, and got 3.46 km/s. Close to your value. But for the Venus part, the numbers seem off. Assuming a helocentric transfer orbit with apsis at the semi-major axis of Venus and Earth, and a circular orbit for venus, the relative velocity should be 2.71km/s, working out to a ...


3

To a first approximation, thrust doesn't matter. If it takes 3 minutes instead of 2 to apply the delta-V to go from Earth orbit to a Venus transfer, it makes no odds. Beyond that first approximation, there are differences mostly in the direction that lower thrust increases the total impulse (delta-V essentially) that is needed. The main one is the Oberth ...


3

There is no sulfuric acid fog on the surface of Venus. Sulfuric acid clouds, formed in the upper atmosphere when dissociated oxygen reacts with water and sulfur dioxide, rains down towards the surface but evaporates in the increasing heat as it falls until the air becomes clear again. The evaporation is accompanied by decomposition of the acid as this is ...


2

This was indeed quite a challenge. The main advantage was having the mariner probe there. By determining the effect of Venus on the orbit of mariner, Having the exact distance to the surface of Venus using radar on-board Mariner and tracking data of Mariner itself allowed for a pretty good estimate. In particular the difference in distance between where ...


2

I think the teeth should be used for camera calibration. The very dense atmosphere of Venus outside the camera window of the lander had a magnifing effect like a lens. This effect is known from scuba diving masks, everything looks closer and bigger because of the water outside is more dense than the air inside the mask. The exact magnification was unknown ...


1

Concerning thrust values in previous Venus missions here are some examples. A lot of first Russian probes in "Venera" ("Venus") series was launched by the R-7 family launcher with "Block-L" upper stage, which accelerated probes to Venus direction. It had the thrust of 65.41 kN, gross mass of 5,100 kg (11,200 lb), unfuelled mass ...


1

Described as a "flux-gate magnetometer". In book "Means of measurement of magnetic field parameters": Венеры, Марса и других планет. С помощью этих приборов установлены основные закономерности взаимодействия солнечного ветра с магнитосферой Земли, а также закономерности, позволяющие судить о механизме возникновения собственных магнитных полей планет. ...


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