26

According to this NASA page someone was killed when his space suit was ripped during a test of the ejection system. Korolyovs [Korolevs] reaction to Dolgov's death was to take a number of urgent and clever measures. First he had the exit hatch made larger. Secondly, he increased to two seconds the interval between shooting off the hatch and the ...


24

The Voskhod capsule was very cramped, and the three-cosmonaut flight was essentially a propaganda stunt. From Wikipedia: [Voskhod 1 was] the first flight without the use of spacesuits... The three spacesuits for the Voskhod 1 cosmonauts were omitted; there was neither the room nor the payload capacity for the Voskhod to carry them. ... The only other space ...


14

The hatch blew off and the pilot was ejected in a seat. He then separated from the seat and descended on a parachute. This was all kept quiet because of the contemporary FAI rules about manned spacecraft.


12

The earliest mention of the northern lights that I was able to find is the memories of the Voskhod-1 crew. «Наибольшее впечатление на всех нас произвело полярное сияние, которое нам удалось наблюдать в районе Антарктиды за несколько минут перед выходом из тени. Картина была такая: горизонт, затем тёмное небо, затем верхний слой яркости, подсвеченной луной, ...


11

I found a diagram that explains it better than words. The landing rocket module was at the base of the parachute lines, not above them: The linkage appears to be hinged, but I'm guessing it's a solid piece of metal rather than easily-burned fiber. According to Space Biology & Medicine: Space and its Exploration, the capsule would be falling at 7-8 m/s ...


11

As a complementary answer, there's one example of a Soviet spacecraft build for manned spaceflight, but without an actual crew onboard during high altitude flights. Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" was a member of the Soyuz family of manned spacecraft, intended to be the command module of the cancelled Soviet lunar programme. A number of Zond test missions were ...


11

Voskhod 2 was I think the highest altitude crewed Soviet flight, reaching 475 km (295 mi) apogee. This was Leonov's spacewalk flight; I don't know if the high apogee was related to that. The Mir-bound flights usually went to around 300-400 km (190-250 mi; the station's orbit varied considerably over its lifetime), and the prior Salyut stations orbited lower ...


9

In addition to previous answers: This source (in Russian) http://epizodsspace.airbase.ru/bibl/i_tsk/zv-reis.html contains Gagarin's post-flight debriefing. His exact words regarding ejection were: "Жду катапультирования. В это время приблизительно на высоте 7 тысяч метров происходит отстрел крышки люка № 1. Хлопок, и крышка люка ушла. Я сижу и думаю, не ...


6

To summarise information already provided in the comments, there was nothing that prevented Vostok and Voskhod spherical reentry capsules from tipping or rolling after touchdown due to inertia of the impact. If landed on a flat terrain, the capsule shouldn't roll too far after the impact though as the capsule's center of gravity was lower than the ...


5

Back in those early days of space exploration, the manned missions were formally Soviet missions, since Russia was only one of 15 socialistic republics of USSR. Korolev himself was born in Ukrainian SSR and started his studying in Kiev. As a side note, I myself had a priviledge to study at Kiev Politechnical University in that same room Korolev had been ...


4

There isn't that much of a difference after all. It's mostly a matter of perception because the R-7 family evolved into many different variants, so it feels like most Soviet launch systems use liquid boosters. Proton, for example, doesn't use any strap-on boosters. The following "early ICBM" designs of the early 60's are actually pretty similar: R-7 with ...


4

According to Wikipedia, Voskhod's requirement to put multiple crew members in a sphere the same size as Vostok forced elimination of the earlier spacecraft's ejection seat (and in the case of Voskhod 1, eliminated pressure suits as well!) and drove the new landing technique: The lack of ejection seats meant that the Voskhod crew would return to Earth ...


3

The choice of an inclination of 51.7° for Salyut 6 (and all other space stations with Russian contribution) is straight forward: It's the lowest inclination that can be reached from Baikonur without crossing the border of China during launch. The low inclination allows for the largest possible payloads due to the additional boost from Earth rotation. All ...


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