138 votes

Why did it take so long to notice that the ozone layer had holes in it? Which satellite provided the data?

I believe the discovery was made by orbiting satellite, but I'm not sure which one. That is not the case. Look at the author affiliation for the article to which you linked. The three authors of that ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 74.8k
36 votes
Accepted

Why doesn't the USA use structurally stronger rockets for the more important launches?

I think you got it wrong: R-7 launches sometimes are also postponed due to weather. Just to name few examples: 18 December 2018, 9 March 2018, 22 April 2016 - Kouru; March 22, 2016 - Baikonur, 2 ...
Sergei Ozerov's user avatar
29 votes
Accepted

Why does the U.S. military maintain their own weather satellites?

Note: This answer is based on a source from 2001. It provides a lot of background as a historical overview, but it does not take into account recent changes in the program. Please review the end of ...
called2voyage's user avatar
  • 23.7k
28 votes

Why doesn't the USA use structurally stronger rockets for the more important launches?

This question is based on several serious misconceptions. R-7 launches never get postponed due to weather. Actually, they do. "The launch of the Soyuz 2-1A modernized carrier rocket, scheduled for ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
28 votes

Would the national flag planted by astronauts on Mars need an upper horizontal pole like the ones on the Moon?

Short answer: Yes. Mars is not windy enough to properly wave most flags. Long answer: In storm conditions, a flag constructed out of a very light material would be able to properly wave. If we take a ...
Dragongeek's user avatar
  • 18.7k
23 votes

Will SpaceX delay launches, if the landing site weather is unacceptable?

The Iridium 7 mission, Jul 25, 2018 gives a partial practical answer. Throughout the webcast John Innsbruker reminded everyone that conditions for landing in the Pacific for the JRTI (Just Read The ...
geoffc's user avatar
  • 79.6k
20 votes
Accepted

Are launch windows to Mars avoided if they result in landings during dust storm season?

Are launch windows to Mars avoided if they result in landings during dust storm season? No. It's pretty well known that the gusts of wind on Mars are relatively harmless to a person standing on Mars (...
Star Man's user avatar
  • 5,918
19 votes

Does upper atmosphere rotate with earth?

Certainly a reasonable question. A possibly useful mental model is to spin a bucket of water in some form. Initially only the surface layers will spin but each layer transfers motion to the next layer ...
GremlinWranger's user avatar
18 votes

Why does the U.S. military maintain their own weather satellites?

The specific needs of the military may not be served by civilian weather satellites. Specifically, the DMSP started as a classified program that supported the Corona spy satellite program. Its ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
18 votes
Accepted

Did any of the Space Shuttles land through rain or rainclouds?

The orbiters were not allowed to fly through precipitation on landing for the following reasons: The orbiter is not to encounter precipitation on any approach due to decreased visibility, damage to ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
16 votes

Why did it take so long to notice that the ozone layer had holes in it? Which satellite provided the data?

To quickly summarise the answer: Nimbus 7 was the satellite involved - but it wasn't first. The ozone hole did not substantially materialise before the early-1980s - in retrospect the decline was ...
Andrew is gone's user avatar
15 votes
Accepted

What are "high altitude winds" and why do they often delay rocket launches?

I can provide details only for the Space Shuttle. 1) Up to 155,000 feet - the approximate altitude of SRB separation - the end of first stage flight. Here are example wind plots (from here) [Note ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
15 votes

Does upper atmosphere rotate with earth?

The lower atmosphere must rotate with the earth because of friction---at least the very bottom of it. That is true, but only at the very, very bottom of the Earth's atmosphere, perhaps the last few ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 74.8k
12 votes

Why doesn't the USA use structurally stronger rockets for the more important launches?

Structural strength is not the only factor in rockets dealing with weather, they are already designed to withstand many Gs of acceleration carrying tons of explosive fuel. Flying through a cloud isn't ...
GdD's user avatar
  • 20.3k
11 votes

What is the warmest place on Mars?

This is a bit tricky to answer, as we don't have perfect global weather from Mars. But as can be seen from the images at this site, it will be a low lying area near the the equator. If I had to ...
PearsonArtPhoto's user avatar
  • 121k
11 votes
Accepted

Does Venus have doldrums or horse latitudes (latitudes with lower winds)?

There are no horse latitudes on Venus, only equatorial doldrums and polar fronts / collars. Convection driven Hadley cells on Venus stretch to ±60° in latitude from the intertropical convergence ...
TildalWave's user avatar
11 votes

Fast spinning solar cells to clear Martian dust possible?

From a mechanical, engineering view, having a brush on a robotic arm to clean the solar panel is more favorable, than rotating the panel. Having a current transfer between the rotating solar panel and ...
peterh's user avatar
  • 3,288
10 votes
Accepted

What is KSC's HURCON II?

HURCON levels range from I to V and are properly defined by the USAF. The KSC uses these levels as well, as outlined by the "KENNEDY SPACE CENTER AND CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION CONSOLIDATED ...
Polygnome's user avatar
  • 6,936
10 votes

How can I find a daily record of the temperature on Mars?

There are a number of ways. Basically, you can either get a global record, or a record from a spacecraft. Curiosity provides us with the clearest cut version, available from its website. Mars Climate ...
PearsonArtPhoto's user avatar
  • 121k
10 votes
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Does Mars have a known "prevailing wind" direction?

No. Mars has complex weather. Just the observation of unpredictable global dust storms shows that there is no persistent weather structure anywhere on Mars. Our global climate models of Mars show ...
Mark Adler's user avatar
  • 58.2k
9 votes

How long would astronauts' footprints on Mars persist?

Several months to years, but not forever. We (obviously) don't yet have astronaut footprints to examine, but we do have rover tracks to look at. Here is a perfect example: Opportunity's tracks around ...
CuteKItty_pleaseStopBArking's user avatar
8 votes

Will SpaceX delay launches, if the landing site weather is unacceptable?

The Hispasat 30W-6 mission in March 2018 was properly fitted with titanium grid fins and landing legs, however the weather in the offshore landing area was too bad for the drone ship Of Course I Still ...
dotancohen's user avatar
  • 6,754
7 votes

What is KSC's HURCON II?

Just FYI, Johnson Space Center also has hurricane readiness levels. But, because no 2 NASA centers can do anything the same, they use a different system. Level 5 - Awareness Hurricane and ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

Fast spinning solar cells to clear Martian dust possible?

I worked in R&D for a solar cell / panel company. Here's my thoughts: Dust does reduce the power to solar cell significantly. A few options: Spinning - Could be done but would need to withstand ...
Rob Rogers's user avatar
7 votes

Perseverance individual sample collection post-mission; what stops them from blowing away or getting covered and hidden by dust?

Quite a lot to unpack here as several topics are brought up, but the answers are pretty interesting: It might take centuries for dust to cover up the sample tubes Martian dust storms are not as bad ...
Steve Pemberton's user avatar
6 votes

What is the warmest place on Mars?

What is the warmest place on Mars during the night ? Probably Badwater crater (32.8S,62.1E) in the Hellas basin. A part of its floor has the lowest elevation on Mars of about - 8200 m ! (measured ...
Cornelis's user avatar
  • 7,545
6 votes

How can I find a daily record of the temperature on Mars?

According to AP News' And now for the weather on Mars, courtesy of new NASA lander CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) — And now for the weather on Mars: NASA’s newest lander is offering daily reports on the ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
6 votes
Accepted

How soon will LC-39A be at significant risk to storm-surge damage?

How soon will LC-39A be at significant risk to storm-surge damage? It is currently at risk to storm surge damage, and measures have been and will continue to be taken to mitigate risk. This answer ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
6 votes

How does InSight measure wind speed?

Using information from @CarlosN's answer I googled "nasa Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS)" and found the following: MER Analyst's Notebook: Rover Environmental Monitoring ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
6 votes
Accepted

Might Ingenuity tip over?

The wind on Mars simply isn't that powerful. For comparison, the blades, which are rather large, are moving at the tips around 0.7 mach. It would take wind speeds on that order to cause it to have any ...
PearsonArtPhoto's user avatar
  • 121k

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