When a rocket is on its launch pad, umbilicals allow the flow of liquids, gases, electric power, and signals to the spacecraft. The umbilical is detached from the spacecraft at or before launch, to allow the craft to move unimpeded.
What mechanisms are used to hold umbilicals in place, so they do not detach prematurely?
If your answer is specific to a particular spacecraft, please specify it. Although this question is principally about umbilicals used for launch, their use between sections of a spacecraft may also be addressed.
Speculated possible answers:
- Friction is sufficient to hold the umbilical in place
- A spring-loaded or detent mechanism is overcome with the force of the launch
- Explosive bolts
- They are screwed-on
- A locking mechanism that must be actively released by electrical/pneumatic/hydraulic power
- Don't worry about it (doubtful)
- Just let the force of the launch tear through the pipes and wires (doubtful!)