I have no idea about the specific reasons for the behavior of this rover, but it could be as simple as, how loud is Mars? If the rover often makes more noise than anything else nearby, maybe it just can't hear anything else clearly enough to locate it. I don't know either way, but it's worth considering: how loud are the signals of interest, and how loud is the noise (the sum of everything else)? Cross-correlation signal processing can provide significant gain, but only if the signal has enough structure of the right kind.
The primary explanatory Wikipedia article I would recommend is Multilateration, or, as we call it where I work, Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) geolocation. It is closely related to the things (ILD, IPD, and ITD) mentioned in the articles @uhoh linked, but rather than trying to exactly match what animals do, this is the method usually used in computer processing of both radio and sound signals for navigation, so it's what I would assume JPL's engineers would choose.
If the sound you're locating lasts long enough, you can just move the microphones relative to each other to generate new TDOA surfaces. The source of the sound is located wherever all the surfaces intersect. Animals do the same thing in order to hear more precisely: they turn their heads to get new baselines, and some twist their ears to change where their antenna patterns peak. Since Perseverance has one ear fixed to its body and one on the end of its boom, it could generate the effect of having three ears by extending, retracting, or swinging the boom around; but only if the noise being located lasts long enough, and if they wouldn't cause too much disruption to the missions of all the other sensors sharing the boom by moving it like that.