You may want to read: Legal Aspects of Space Commercialization - K. Tatsuzawa. A few quotations follow...
Costs have been insured:
In 1982, ESA insured the Marecs-A and B satellites for \$90 million,
for a premium of \$6.7 million (7.5% of the insured capital). Insurance would cover
only a second failure, meaning that payment would occur if both
satellites malfunctionned or were de stroyed during launching. Thus,
having successfully launched Marecs-A, the second satellite was not
Profit loss has been insured:
Japan's Space Communications Corp. (SCC) was forced to shut down its
Superbird-A which has been used by 20 companies and was providing TV
for a 100,000 homes in Japan, in December 23, 1990, and is filing a
\$150 million insurance claim for the vehicle and additional insurance
filings are likely by users of the satellite. The inability to provide
communications services could cost the SCC millions of dollars in
Risks insured are actually various and multiple:
The first client to take an insurance policy was a telecommunications
satellite — COMSAT's Early Bird in 1965. COMSAT had taken a
third-party liability, for damages during the satellite's launching
and its orbital life, and a pre-launch insurance for damage before
launching, while the satellite was still on the ground.
Life insurance has existed since Apollo program:
There has even been a life space insurance policy, insuring the crew
of the Apollo 11 mission. This “astropolicy”, made by a Greek
insurance pool was hailed by the insurance industry for its
inventiveness and innovation.
Space insurance is comparable to maritime insurance, with reinsurance:
Insurance companies usually insure the space risk and then reinsure
themselves through insurance pools.
Types of contracts that have been reviewed by the authors:
- Pre-launch, and in-orbit insurance.
- Economic losses insurance.
- Damages to third parties.
- Re-entry liability.
Other elements you mention (e.g. constraints for launch) seem to be the result of a negotiation between the owner and the insurer, as explained in the document.
From OECD (2011), “Insurance market for space activities”, in The Space Economy at a Glance 2011, OECD Publishing: