But this leaves me wondering: in what ways were the Apollo landings different from a Falcon 9 stage 1 landing? I'm interested in the controls perspective more than the physics of the problem (e.g., drag, etc),
There are certainly a lot of similarities.
The Falcon benefits massively from air resistance on the way down -- it gets slower and slower as it descends, as opposed to a lunar lander, which would accelerate all the way down if it wasn't firing the descent engine all the way.
Falcon stage recovery is extremely precise, usually hitting within a couple of meters of the center of the barge target. While the Apollo LM had some ability to control the intended touchdown point, it was more of a "best effort" control than precision guidance.
There was an automatic touchdown program on the Apollo LM, but it was never used. On every landing mission, the commander used the semi-manual "program 66" mode, in which the commander's controls provided the desired descent rate and spacecraft attitude to the computer, and the computer translated that to throttle and RCS commands. Typically the switchover to P66 happened at around 150 meters altitude, descending at about 5 m/s. By comparison to Falcon, even the automatic descent schedule would be pretty leisurely; the descent rate would decrease steadily all the way down, and the last 150 meters of descent would take around a minute, whereas Falcon does it in around six seconds. If the Apollo commander didn't like the look of the terrain, it was possible to stop the vertical descent and maneuver horizontally; there was over a minute of descent fuel budgeted for discretionary maneuvering. Under Earth's much higher gravity, Falcon 9 doesn't have the fuel budget to fool around like that.
Both Apollo and Falcon rely primarily on a large, gimbaled, throttleable engine (or three) for both descent-rate control and steering. Secondarily, Apollo had RCS for attitude control, but the main engine was faster and more efficient in that role; the RCS was needed to adjust yaw attitude (i.e. what a long cylindrical rocket would normally refer to as roll), but the landing strategy generally didn't require much yaw maneuvering. Falcon has both cold-gas thrusters and grid fins for secondary attitude control; the fins are critical to maintain the stage's attitude during the period when the main engines aren't firing, but I don't know what the relative contributions of fins, thrusters, and Merlins are to attitude control during the final powered descent phase.