72

According to Chris Hadfield's answer during his Reddit AMA: "We have a squishy thing inside we jam our nose into while we clear our ears — we scratch our nose on that." The "squishy thing" is formally known as a Valsalva device (used by both astronauts and divers for equalizing pressure in their sinuses. (Thanks to Organic Marble's comment). In addition, ...


22

From Retro Space Images's FaceBook post: Gene Cernan scratches the itch during an Apollo 17 training session at KSC.


21

Consider this dramatization of Apollo 13 as an explanation of why it is probable we don't know what the most heated argument has ever been in space: Astronauts worry about how ground control's perception of their performance will affect their opportunities to fly again. Space agencies worry about how the public's perception ...


18

How about Willpower? Every Soldier learns to stand still at a parade or when they got to pledge loyalty. When I had my inauguration at the Austrian Military forces, we all had to stand still for quite some time (2-3 hours no nose or butt scratching) and it wasn't really a problem. Also, if you're concentrated on something serious (like doing work in a ...


17

According to an audio transcript of the Apollo 17 lunar mission, some astronauts had a Velcro patch somewhere on the inside of the helmet to scratch their nose on.


12

This is a very important subject. Recommended reading: Nick Kanas, Dietrich Manzey. Space Psychology and Psychiatry. Springer, 2008. To quote (pp.193-194): From the very beginning of long-duration space flight, the provision of psychological in-flight support to crewmembers has been an important counter- measure in Russia [Grigoriev et al., 1987; ...


5

Interpersonal conflicts (including those occurring in space) are documented in a few of the franker astronaut memoirs, and a few other books. They are often heavily anonymized to avoid identification of the participants. The extremely frank and highly recommended memoir by shuttle Mission Specialist Mike Mullane, Riding Rockets, lists a few in Chapter 24, ...


5

Chris Hadfield responded to this question this way: The Soyuz is very small and the weight balance affects how it flies, so we are very restricted in what we can bring. I thus chose small items for my family and close friends: a new wedding ring for my wife, commemorative jewellery, a watch for my daughter (I flew a watch each for my sons on ...


4

As pointed out in the comments, there are many things to consider, but let's try to pull out reasonable assumptions for an estimation. Apparent magnitude being meant with respect to the crew of the vehicle, we can ask your very interesting question in a more physical way: at what point on a trajectory from Earth to Mars are flux densities of both planets ...


4

The psychological effects experienced by the Apollo astronauts are well documented - check out Andy Chaikin's "A Man on the Moon" and Andrew Smith's "Moondust" for two great insights. Chris Hadfield has also remarked that as well as physical reconditioning he's had to psychologically recondition, even to the simple acts of everyday living that were not ...


4

Care packages may be sent up once or twice during a six-month period, and they are usually assembled from items sent from the astronaut's home or from the support staff. The package is sent in a half-size cargo transfer bag (CTB) made of white Nomex fabric and 24.8 cm x 42.5 cm x 23.5 cm. The maximum load is 5 kilograms per crew member. A NASA article goes ...


4

Mary Roach's book Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void gives an interesting look at almost this exact question (with a humorous undertone). It's a very easy read with some pop-flair to it that addresses specific experiments that have been done to combat the inherent psychological issues of isolation and physiological effects as well. ...


3

In one particular case, astronauts staged a strike when they felt they were being overworked with a schedule filled with tedious tasks without break. During its 84 day mission in 1973-1974, the crew of Skylab 4, consisting of Gerald P. Carr, Edward G. Gibson, and William R. Pogue complained of exhaustion from the endless tedium of chores assigned by ground ...


3

Two producers I am aware of: NPP Zvezda produces ПК-14. Kentavr-Nauka produces some other things. Be prepared to use google translate.


2

I've done a quick numerical integration for a circular Earth orbit and elliptical orbits for Mars and the Ship on a Hohmann transfer ellipse. I normalized to 1 AU so 1 year corresponds to a time of $2 \pi$. The vis-viva equation gives $$v^2(r) = \left(\frac{2}{r}-\frac{1}{a}\right),$$ and period from this answer $$T = 2 \pi \sqrt{a^3}.$$ I used ...


2

For anyone interested, JSC has a list of “government furnished equipment,” and, “flight crew equipment,” which has been approved for use in space. The commercial products listed within can be selected from the document - much like a menu - as part of the “crew preference” items, such as under-arm deodorant, etc. (All of it has to be validated for off-gassing,...


2

I came across a study, which I believe comes close to the question, is using VR to treat the fear of Flight and claustrophobia. The abstract of the study can be found here. The goal of the study was to understand the effect of Virtual Reality Graded Exposure Therapy. They had a small sample size of thirty individuals diagnosed with the fear of flying. They ...


1

Robert Frost, an engineer and instructor who has trained many astronauts for the International Space Station, gave the following list on Quora: (link) 1 pair of shoes for the treadmill 1 pair of shoes for the bike 1 pair of exercise shorts for every 3 days of exercise 1 T-shirt for every 3 days of exercise 1 work shirt for every 10 days 1 T-shirt for under ...


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